SafetySkillsTM Struck By and Caught Between Safety DVD

Editors' review

October 20, 2016

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This is an incomplete list that may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries. This is a list of accidents and disasters by death toll. It shows the number of fatalities associated with various explosions, structural fires, flood disasters, coal mine disasters, and other notable accidents. This list does not include deaths by natural disasters, war, or violent acts. Deaths Incident Location Date 583 Pan Am Flight 1736 and KLM Flight 4805 Tenerife, Canary Islands 27 March 1977 520 Japan Airlines Flight 123 Ueno, Japan 12 August 1985 349 Saudi Arabian Flight 763 and Kazakhstan Airlines Flight 1907 Charkhi Dadri, India 12 November 1996 346 Turkish Airlines Flight 981 Fontaine-Chaalis, France 3 March 1974 329 Air India Flight 182 Atlantic Ocean 23 June 1985 301 Saudia Flight 163 Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 19 August 1980 298 Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 near Hrabove, Donetsk Oblast, Ukraine 17 July 2014 290 Iran Air Flight 655 Strait of Hormuz, off Shib Deraz, Iran 3 July 1988 275 Iranian military Il-76 Accident near Kerman, Iran 19 February 2003 273 American Airlines Flight 191 Des Plaines, United States 25 May 1979 270 Pan Am Flight 103 Lockerbie, Scotland, United Kingdom 21 December 1988 269 Korean Air Lines Flight 007 Sea of Japan 1 September 1983 265 American Airlines Flight 587 Queens, United States 12 November 2001 264 China Airlines Flight 140 Japan-KomakiKomaki, Japan 26 April 1994 261 Nigeria Airways Flight 2120 Saudi Arabia-JeddahJeddah, Saudi Arabia 11 July 1991 257 Air New Zealand Flight 901 Antarctica 28 November 1979 256 Arrow Air Flight 1285 Gander, Newfoundland, Canada 12 December 1985 This list does not include bombings, aviation incidents, or mining disasters Deaths Date Incident 6,000 000000001948-11-01-00001 November 1948 Boiler and ammunition explosion aboard an unidentified merchant ship evacuating troops of the Republic of China Army from Yingkou, China for Taiwan in early November 1948 3,000 000000001769-08-18-000018 August 1769 A lightning bolt caused the explosion of a gunpowder depot in Brescia (Italy), destroying one-sixth of the city 1,950 000000001917-12-06-00006 December 1917 Halifax Explosion in Nova Scotia, Canada 1,500 000000001941-06-08-00008 June 1941 Ammunition plant with facilities explode at Smederevo, outskirt of Belgrade, Serbia 1,200 000000001926-10-16-000016 October 1926 Explosion of ammunition on the Chinese troopship Kuang Yuang, near Kiukiang, China 1,200 000000001956-08-07-00007 August 1956 Ammunition trucks explode near a railway station in Cali, Colombia 1,121 000000001943-09-01-00001 September 1943 Japanese battleship Mutsu, at Hashirajima harbor, 1943 due to magazine explosion 1,100 000000002002-01-27-000027 January 2002 Lagos Armoury Explosion, in Lagos, Nigeria; many deaths were from drowning during the resulting panic 1,007 000000001918-11-18-000018 November 1918 Ammunition transporter explosion in Hamont, Belgium 1,000+ 000000001794-08-31-000031 August 1794 Explosion of a gunpowder factory in Grenelle, France 843 000000001917-07-09-00009 July 1917 Propellant explosion of the British dreadnought battleship HMS Vanguard 800 000000001944-04-14-000014 April 1944 Bombay Docks Explosion in Bombay, India 738 000000001914-11-26-000026 November 1914 British pre-dreadnought battleship HMS Bulwark destroyed due to a magazine explosion 700 000000001988-08-17-000017 August 1988 Iraqi military plant with facilities explode at Al Hillah, Babil, Iraq 621 000000001925-02-27-000027 February 1925 Explosion of a dynamite depot in Brazil 600+ 000000001943-03-28-000028 March 1943 Explosion of the Caterina Costa, at port of Naples; over 3000 were also injured 590 000000001893-11-03-00003 November 1893 Explosion of the Cabo Machichaco, at the port of Santander, Cantabria, Spain, with over 2000 injured 575 000000001989-06-04-00004 June 1989 Ufa train disaster in Ufa, Soviet Union 568+ 000000001947-04-16-000016 April 1947 Texas City disaster 565 000000001921-09-21-000021 September 1921 Oppau explosion at a BASF plant in Germany; possibly as many as 1,500 were killed 500+ 000000001984-11-19-000019 November 1984 San Juanico Disaster, in Mexico City, Mexico 372 000000001944-12-11-000011 December 1944 Ammunition ship USS Mount Hood exploded at Seeadler Harbor, killing 372 and injuring 371 339 000000001905-09-11-000011 September 1905 Japanese battleship Mikasa explosion of magazine (artillery) while at port 322 000000001944-07-17-000017 July 1944 Port Chicago disaster at Port Chicago, California, United States 300 (estimate) 000000001911-09-25-000025 September 1911 An explosion occurred on the French battleship Liberté 296+ 000000001937-03-18-000018 March 1937 New London School explosion at New London, Texas, United States 246+ 000000002012-03-04-00004 March 2012 Brazzaville arms dump blasts at Brazzaville, Republic of the Congo 234 000000002003-12-23-000023 December 2003 PetroChina Chuandongbei natural gas field explosion, Guoqiao, Chongqing, China 233 000000001916-10-20-000020 October 1916 Russian battleship Imperatritsa Mariya magazine explosion 230+ 000000002010-07-02-00002 July 2010 South Kivu tank truck explosion in the Democratic Republic of the Congo 226+ 000000001806-07-18-000018 July 1806 Gunpowder explosion near Valletta, Malta 217 000000001978-07-11-000011 July 1978 Los Alfaques disaster, in Sant Carles de la Ràpita, Spain 207 000000001948-07-28-000028 July 1948 Tank car explosion at BASF, Ludwigshafen am Rhein, Germany; 3,818 were also injured 206 000000001992-04-22-000022 April 1992 Gas explosions in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico 200+ 000000001991-06-06-00006 June 1991 Gotera ammunition dump explosion in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 200 000000001984-12-02-00002 December 1984 Gas explosion in Tbilisi, Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic 200 000000001900-05-01-00001 May 1900 Scofield Mine disaster in Scofield, Utah, United States, caused by a dust explosion 200 000000001908-02-27-000027 February 1908 Mina Rosita Vieja disaster, San Juan de Sabinas, Coahuila, Mexico 189 000000001942-04-29-000029 April 1942 Tessenderlo, Tessenderlo Chemie ammonium nitrate explosion, Belgium 180 000000001990-08-26-000026 August 1990 Tuzla, Dobrnja-Jug mine disaster, Bosnia and Herzegovina, then Yugoslavia 177 000000001941-01-01-00001 January 1941 Mitsubishi Bibai, Bibai, Hokkaidō, Japan 171 000000001991-02-15-000015 February 1991 A trailer truck carrying dynamite exploded after a crash at Thung Maphrao, Phang Nga, Thailand 166 000000002004-11-28-000028 November 2004 Chenjiashan, Tongchuan, Shaanxi, China 163 000000001944-05-21-000021 May 1944 West Loch Disaster, where the tank landing ship LST-353 exploded at West Loch, Hawaii, United States while handling ammunition 160 000000001944-04-20-000020 April 1944 Vågen explosion in Norway 159 000000002015-08-12-000012 August 2015 Tianjin explosions in China 159 000000002000-09-26-000026 September 2000 Muchonggou, Shuicheng, Guizhou, China 154 000000002004-04-22-000022 April 2004 Ryongchon disaster in North Korea 153 000000001982-01-01-00001 January 1982 Tacoa Disaster (Tacoa Power Plant, Arrecife, Venezuela) 151 000000001807-01-01-00001 January 1807 Gunpowdership disaster in Leiden, the Netherlands 151 000000001930-07-09-00009 July 1930 Hausdorf, Germany (currently Jugów, Poland) 150 000000001773-11-02-00002 November 1773 Gunpowder explosion in Abbeville, France 150 000000002011-03-28-000028 March 2011 Jaʿār munitions factory explosion in Abyan Governorate, Yemen 147 000000001947-08-18-000018 August 1947 Spanish Naval torpedo and landmine factory exploded at Cadiz, Andalusia, Spain 146 000000002014-08-02-00002 August 2014 2014 Kunshan explosion, a dust explosion in Kunshan, Jiangsu, China 140 000000002009-01-31-000031 January 2009 Sachangwan Molo tanker explosion in Kenya 134 000000001918-07-01-00001 July 1918 Chilwell Munitions factory explosion in Nottingham, England 133 000000001917-01-01-00001 January 1917 Munitions plant in Pennsylvania, United States 130 000000001944-10-20-000020 October 1944 Cleveland East Ohio Gas explosion in Cleveland, Ohio, United States 126 000000001597-03-11-000011 March 1597 Dublin Gunpowder Disaster in Dublin, Ireland 121 000000002012-07-12-000012 July 2012 Road tanker explosion in Okobie, Nigeria 118 000000001907-03-12-000012 March 1907 Explosion on the French battleship Iéna 117 000000002007-03-22-000022 March 2007 2007 Maputo arms depot explosion at Mozambican Armed Forces ammunition in Laulane, Mozambique.[ 117 000000002010-06-03-00003 June 2010 Electrical transformer explosion in Dhaka, Bangladesh 116 000000001916-01-01-00001 January 1916 Munitions factory, Faversham, Kent, England 110 000000001995-03-12-000012 March 1995 A tanker truck carrying petrol exploded at Chennai, India 105 000000001980-11-24-000024 November 1980 24 houses of liquefied petroleum gas exploded at Danaciobasi, Kırıkkale, Turkey 103 000000001954-05-26-000026 May 1954 USS Bennington, off Quonset Point, Rhode Island, Catapult_Explosion 103 000000001995-04-28-000028 April 1995 Gas explosions by subway construction in Daegu, South Korea 100 000000001654-10-12-000012 October 1654 Delft Explosion in the Netherlands 100 000000001693-02-12-000012 February 1693 Gunpowder explosion in Limerick, Ireland 100 000000001749-06-21-000021 June 1749 Gunpowder explosion in Wrocław, Poland 100 000000001918-01-01-00001 January 1918 Chemical plant in Pittsburgh, United States 100 000000001918-10-04-00004 October 1918 T. A. Gillespie Company Shell Loading Plant explosion in Sayreville, New Jersey, United States. 100 000000001930-06-10-000010 June 1930 Explosion of an ammunitions dump in Chuchow, China 100 000000001988-04-10-000010 April 1988 Pakistani Army ammunition dump explodes at Islamabad, Pakistan 100 000000002008-05-15-000015 May 2008 NNPC oil pipeline explosion, which blasted a primary school at Ijegun, Nigeria 98 000000002007-03-28-000028 March 2007 A truck carrying 8,800 gallons of fuel exploded and caught fire at Kagarko, Kaduna, Nigeria 94 000000001939-03-01-00001 March 1939 Japanese Imperial Army ammunitions dump exploded at Hirakata, outskirt of Osaka, Japan 94 000000001924-12-27-000027 December 1924 Temiya railroad station and Otaru harbor facilities destroyed by an exploding standing freight train carrying dynamite at Otaru, Hokkaidō, Japan 92 000000001960-10-24-000024 October 1960 Nedelin catastrophe, at a space center in Baikonur, Kazakhstan 90 000000001996-01-31-000031 January 1996 Explosion of a large store of dynamite in the basement of a five-story apartment building in Shaoyang, Hunan, China 90 000000002004-06-20-000020 June 2004 A truck carrying 3,800 gallons of gasoline with six vehicles crashed and exploded at Nosratabad, Sistan and Baluchistan, Iran 79 000000001970-04-08-00008 April 1970 Gas explosions by subway construction in Osaka, Japan 78 000000001978-10-12-000012 October 1978 Greek tanker Spyros exploded at Jurong shipyard, Singapore 75 000000001944-11-27-000027 November 1944 Underground ammunition store explosion at Fauld, Staffordshire, England 74 000000001963-10-31-000031 October 1963 Propane explosion at the Indiana State Fairgrounds Coliseum during a Holiday on Ice show at the Indiana State Fair in Indianapolis, United States 73 000000001917-01-19-000019 January 1917 Silvertown explosion in London, England 73 000000001988-06-04-00004 June 1988 Arzamas train disaster, where a railroad station exploded in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia 70 000000001946-08-18-000018 August 1946 Vergarolla explosion at Pula, Italy 70 000000001993-08-06-00006 August 1993 Shenzhen factory explosions in Shenzhen, China. A chain reaction of explosions rippled through factory district originating from an army-owned factory. 63 000000001990-09-25-000025 September 1990 A tank truck carrying liquefied petroleum gas crashed and exploded in downtown Bangkok, Thailand 63 000000001987-08-31-000031 August 1987 St. Helena Gold Mine explosion by methane gas in Welkom, Free State, South Africa 60 000000001936-01-01-00001 January 1936 Army laboratory (near Tallinn, Estonia) 60 000000002000-09-09-00009 September 2000 Truck explosion in Urumqi, Xinjiang Uygur, China 60 000000001994-11-11-000011 November 1994 Tank truck explosion, while carrying fuel oil at outskirt of Onitscha, Nigeria 57 000000001977-11-11-000011 November 1977 Freight train with dynamite exploded at Iri railroad station, Iksan, Jeollabukdo, South Korea 57 000000001980-05-18-000018 May 1980 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens 51 000000001940-09-12-000012 September 1940 297,000 pounds of gunpowder blew up killing 51 people at Hercules Powder Factory of Kenvil, New Jersey, U.S. 50 000000001918-07-02-00002 July 1918 Explosion at TNT factory at Split Rock, New York, United States 50 000000001979-01-08-00008 January 1979 Oil tanker explosion, known as the Betelgeuse incident at Whiddy Island, West Cork, Ireland 50 000000001987-07-28-000028 July 1987 Three cars of passenger train from Aleppo, that exploded at Al Jazira, northern Syria 49 000000001979-02-15-000015 February 1979 Gas explosion in PKO Rotunda Bank, Warsaw Poland 49 000000001980-10-23-000023 October 1980 Gas explosion at Colegio Marcelino Ugalde, Ortuella, Vizcaya, Spain 48 000000001980-01-01-00001 January 1980 Vostok rocket explosion (Plesetsk Cosmodrome, Soviet Union) 48 000000002012-08-25-000025 August 2012 Paraguana Refinery Complex explosion, Falcon State, Venezuela 47 000000001989-04-19-000019 April 1989 USS Iowa turret explosion 47 000000002013-07-06-00006 July 2013 Lac-Megantic, Quebec, freight train derailment, explosion and fire in Quebec, Canada. 45 000000001996-06-11-000011 June 1996 Gas explosion in Osasco Plaza Shopping Mall in Osasco, Brazil. Another 482 were injured 43 000000001915-09-27-000027 September 1915 Explosion of rail car that was leaking casinghead gas in Ardmore, Oklahoma; dozens injured, destroyed most of downtown area. 41 000000001968-04-06-00006 April 1968 Richmond, Indiana explosion; more than 150 were injured 41 000000001993-01-07-00007 January 1993 Uam apartment complex collapsed by gas explosion at Cheongju, Chungcheongbuk-do, South Korea 40 000000001646-07-12-000012 July 1646 Gunpowder Tower Disaster, lightning struck the gunpowder tower of the castle, Bredevoort, the Netherlands 40 000000001976-04-13-000013 April 1976 Lapua ammo factory in Finland 39 000000001993-04-29-000029 April 1993 Hekimbasi garbage dump with twelve slum houses explosion at Umraniye, Istanbul, Turkey 36 000000001984-08-16-000016 August 1984 Petrobras Campos Basin exploded, off eastern Rio state, Brazil 35 000000001916-01-01-00001 January 1916 Ammunition factory near Leeds, England 35 000000001999-09-19-000019 September 1999 A potassium chlorate explosion in a dried-longan factory, San Pa Tong, Chiang Mai, Thailand 33+ 000000001931-04-30-000030 April 1931 Explosion at a naval laboratory in Brazil 33 000000001996-11-21-000021 November 1996 Humberto Vidal explosion in San Juan, Puerto Rico 32 000000002009-06-29-000029 June 2009 2009 Viareggio derailment, a gas train explosion in Italy 32 000000002014-07-31-000031 July 2014 2014 Kaohsiung gas explosions, a series of gas explosions in Kaohsiung, Taiwan 29 000000002001-09-21-000021 September 2001 AZF chemical factory explosion in Toulouse, France 29 000000002008-01-01-00001 January 2008 Blast in ammunition depot in Albania 28 000000001974-06-01-00001 June 1974 Flixborough chemical plant explosion near Scunthorpe, England 28 000000001871-08-11-000011 August 1871 Explosion in gun cotton factory in Stowmarket, Suffolk, England 27 000000002004-01-19-000019 January 2004 LNG liquefaction plant explosion, Skikda, Algeria 26 000000002013-05-07-00007 May 2013 2013 Ecatepec de Morelos gas tanker explosion, Ecatepec de Morelos, Mexico 25 000000002012-09-05-00005 September 2012 2012 Afyonkarahisar arsenal explosion, Turkey 25 000000001992-07-16-000016 July 1992 Tarata bombing, Lima, Peru 24 000000002004-07-30-000030 July 2004 Gas explosion in Ghislenghien, Belgium 23 000000001976-01-10-000010 January 1976 Pathfinder Hotel, Fremont, Nebraska, United States 23 000000001989-10-23-000023 October 1989 Phillips Disaster in Pasadena, Texas, United States 22 000000001995-04-17-000017 April 1995 Gas explosion in tower block, (Gdańsk, Poland) 22 000000001995-01-01-00001 January 1995 Gas explosion in pipeline, (Kaohsiung, Taiwan) 23 000000002000-05-13-000013 May 2000 Fireworks factory (Enschede, the Netherlands), Enschede fireworks disaster 21 000000001919-01-15-000015 January 1919 Boston Molasses Disaster in Boston, Massachusetts, United States 21 000000001985-06-25-000025 June 1985 Fireworks explosion in Hallet, Oklahoma, United States 21 000000001926-01-01-00001 January 1926 Arsenal dump in New Jersey, United States 21 000000002003-08-22-000022 August 2003 Brazilian rocket explosion 19 000000001956-07-29-000029 July 1956 McKee refinery fire in Sunray, Texas, United States 19 000000001951-10-29-000029 October 1951 Morania Fire, Buffalo, New York, United States – Destroyed Morania, Penobscot, and Dauntless 18 000000001966-01-04-00004 January 1966 Propane Sphere Explosion and Fire, Feyzin, France 18 000000002004-05-24-000024 May 2004 Mihăileşti explosion in Romania 16 000000001984-05-23-000023 May 1984 Pump House Explosion, Lune/Wyre Transfer Scheme, Abbeystead, England 15 000000002005-03-23-000023 March 2005 Texas City Refinery explosion, Texas City, Texas, United States 15 000000001980-08-16-000016 August 1980 Gas explosions from an underground shopping mall in Shizuoka, Japan, Shizuoka, Shizuoka#Post-war Shizuoka 15 000000002013-04-17-000017 April 2013 West Fertilizer Company explosion, West, Texas, United States 14 000000002008-02-07-00007 February 2008 2008 Georgia sugar refinery explosion (Port Wentworth, Georgia, United States) 14 000000001973-02-02-00002 February 1973 Gas explosion in downtown Eagle Grove, Iowa, United States 13 000000002011-07-11-000011 July 2011 Evangelos Florakis Naval Base explosion (Mari, Cyprus) 15 000000001960-10-04-00004 October 1960 Kingsport, Tennessee Chemical Plant Explosion, October 1960#October 4.2C 1960 .28Tuesday.29 12 000000002009-10-29-000029 October 2009 Jaipur oil depot fire (IOC), Jaipur, Rajasthan, India 11 000000002010-04-20-000020 April 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, near the Mississippi River Delta 10 000000001960-10-25-000025 October 1960 Metropolitan Store explosion, Windsor, Ontario, Canada 10 000000002000-08-19-000019 August 2000 El Paso Pipeline explosion, two families camping 20 miles North of Carslbad, New Mexico, United States, off the Pecos River. 8 000000001983-12-07-00007 December 1983 Gas explosion in Łódź, Poland 8 000000002002-11-20-000020 November 2002 Amunitions factory explosion in Riobamba, Ecuador 8 000000002010-09-09-00009 September 2010 2010 San Bruno pipeline explosion, a natural gas pipeline explosion in San Bruno, California, United States 7 000000001983-12-27-000027 December 1983 North Division Street explosion, Buffalo, New York, United States 7 000000001984-09-07-00007 September 1984 Illegal fireworks that were being disposed by the Maltese patrol boat C23 exploded killing seven and injuring another 1 000000001983-01-07-00007 January 1983 1983 Newark explosion in Newark, New Jersey claims 1 life and injures 22-24. The explosion is notable because it was felt 100-130 miles away from the epicenter. Deaths Date Incident 3,787-19,000+ 2–3 December 1984 Bhopal disaster at Union Carbide (now Dow Chemicals) factory, Bhopal, India 1,784+ 1932-1968 Minamata disease, Japan 1,549 April 26, 1942 Benxihu Colliery explosion, China 1,129 24 April 2013 Collapse of the Rana Plaza, Savar Upazila, Dhaka District, Bangladesh 1,099 10 March 1906 Courrières mine disaster, Courrières, France 687 15 December 1914 Mitsubishi Hōjō, Kyūshū, Japan 682 9 May 1960 Laobaidong colliery coal dust explosion Datong, China 568+ 16–17 April 1947 Texas City Disaster, Texas City, Texas, U.S. 512 1899 Sumitomo Besshi bronze mine area, landslide with debris flow disaster, Niihama, Shikoku, Japan 500+ 19 November 1984 San Juanico Disaster, Mexico City, Mexico 458 9 November 1963 Mitsui Miike Coal Mine disaster Mitsui Miike, Ōmuta, Fukuoka, Japan 439 14 October 1913 Senghenydd Colliery Disaster, Senghenydd, Wales 437 1960 Coalbrook, South Africa 426 6 June 1972 Wankie coal mine disaster Wankie, Rhodesia/Zimbabwe 422 28 November 1914 New Yubari, Yūbari, Hokkaidō, Japan 405 1946 Bergkamen mining disaster, West Germany 388 12 December 1866 Oaks Colliery, Barnsley, England 376 21 December 1917 Onoura, Kirino, Kyūshū, Japan 375 1965 Mine explosion caused by Methane gas near Dhanbad, Bihar, India 372 27 December 1975 Chasnala mining disaster, Sudamdih Colliery Dhanbad, India 365 20 July 1907 Hokoku, Itoda, Kyūshū, Japan 362 6 December 1907 Monongah Mining disaster, Monongah, West Virginia, U.S. 344 21 December 1910 Pretoria Pit Disaster, Westhoughton, England 319 31 May 1892 Marie ore mine fire, Příbram, Czech Republic 301 13 May 2014 Soma mine disaster, Manisa, Turkey 300+ 11 September 2012 2012 Pakistan garment factory fires, Karachi and Lahore, Pakistan 300+ 9 May 1993 Nambija mine disaster, landslide destroying several mines and buildings, Zamora-Chinchipe, Ecuador 298 1962 Saarland, West Germany 277 8 September 2008 2008 Shanxi mudslide caused by collapse of a mine landfill in Xiangfen, Linfen, Shanxi, China 266 22 September 1934 Gresford Disaster Gresford, Wales 263 22 October 1913 Dawson, New Mexico, U.S. (first disaster) 263 3 March 1992 Incirharmani, Kozlu, Zonguldak, Turkey 262 8 August 1956 Marcinelle, Belgium 259 13 November 1909 1909 Cherry Mine disaster, Cherry, Illinois, U.S. 254 1937 Kogushi sulfur mine collapse, western Gunma, Japan 243 5 August 1909 Onoura, Kirino, Kyūshū, Japan 243 2003 PetroChina Chuandongbei natural gas field explosion, Guoqiao, Kai County, Chongqing, China 239 19 December 1907 Darr Mine Disaster, Jacobs Creek, Pennsylvania, U.S. 236 1 June 1965 Chikuho Yamano, Kyūshū, Japan 235 14 June 1894 Larisch's mines (Jan and Františka), Karviná, Czech Republic 220 28 March 1965 El Cobre tailing dam and copper mine failure by earthquake in Chile 216 19 May 1902 Fraterville, Tennessee, U.S. 214 15 February 2005 2005 Sunjiawan mine disaster, Sunjiawan, Fuxin, Liaoning, China 210 15 June 1899 Hokoku, Itoda, Kyūshū, Japan 204 16 January 1862 Hartley Colliery Disaster, New Hartley, Northumberland, England 202 25 May 1917 Bolevec ammunition factory explosion, Plzeň, Czech Republic 200+ 25 February 1984 Vila Socó oil spill fire, Cubatão, São Paulo, Brazil 200+ 1 May 1900 Scofield Mine disaster, Scofield, Utah, U.S. 200+ 27 February 1908 Mina Rosita Vieja disaster, San Juan de Sabinas, Coahuila, Mexico 189 June 19, 1914 Hillcrest mine disaster, Hillcrest, Alberta, Canada 183 3 February 1942 Chosei, Ube, Japan 181 17 August 2007 Mine disaster with flooding, Huayuan, Xintai, Shandong, China 180 1990 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina 177 16 September 1986 Kinross gold mine fire, Transvaal, South Africa 177 1941 Mitsubishi Bibai, Bibai, Hokkaidō, Japan 169 3 June 1903 Hanna Mine Disaster, Hanna, Wyoming, U.S. 168 8 June 1917 Speculator Mine disaster, Butte, Montana, U.S. 167 6 July 1988 Piper Alpha oil rig disaster North Sea 166 28 November 2004 Chenjiashan, Tongchuan, Shaanxi, China 160+ 19 December 1982 Tacoa powerplant fire, Vargas State, Venezuela[ 159 26 September 2000 Muchonggou, Shuicheng, Guizhou, China 155 12 January 1918 Minnie Pit, Podmore Hall, Halmer End, Staffordshire, UK 153 31 March 1969 Mina de Barroteran, Coahuila, Mexico 151 9 July 1930 Hausdorf, Germany, currently Jugów, Poland 150 May 3, 1887 Nanaimo mine explosion, Nanaimo, British Columbia, Canada 148 20 October 2004 Daping, Tongchuan, Henan, China 147 21 April 1991 Sanjiaohe, Hongdong, Shanxi, China 146 25 March 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, New York City 146 1 August 2014 2014 Kunshan explosion, Kunshan, Jiangsu Province, China 144 21 October 1966 Aberfan landslide disaster, Wales 142 3 January 1934 Nelson, Osek, Czech Republic 134 27 March 1927 Uchigo, Iwaki, Japan 134 27 November 2005 Dongfeng, Qitaihe, Heilongjiang, China 125 26 February 1972 Buffalo Creek Flood / Pittston Coal Company dam failure, West Virginia, U.S. 125 21 February 1891 Springhill mining disaster, Canada 125 15 July 1977 Amaga, Angelopolis, Antioquia, Colombia 124 20 June 2002 Chengzihe, Jixi, Heilongjiang, China 123 8 February 1923 Dawson, New Mexico, U.S. (second disaster) 123 27 March 1980 Alexander Kielland wreck, oil platform destroyed by high wind, Ekofisk oil field, Norway 123 6 August 2005 Daxing, Xingning, Guangdong, China 121 27 April 1917 Victor American Hastings Mine Disaster, near Ludlow, Colorado, U.S. 119 25 December 1951 Orient No. 2 Mine, West Frankfort, Illinois, U.S. 111 25 March 1947 1947 Centralia mine disaster, Centralia, Illinois, U.S. 110 6 September 1869 Avondale Mine Disaster, Plymouth, Pennsylvania, U.S. 109 30 April 1927 Everettville, West Virginia, U.S. 108 19 March 2007 Ulyanovskaya, Novokuznetsk, Kuzbass Region, Siberia, Russia 108 7 July 1961 Dukla, Dolná Súča, Slovakia 108 5 March 1885 Jan, Karviná, Czech Republic 105 11 May 1995 Vaal Reef gold mine elevator failure, Orkney, Klerksdorp, South Africa 105 5 December 2007 Ruizhiyuan, Linfen, Shanxi, China 104 15 August 1947 William pit disaster, Whitehaven, Cumberland, United Kingdom 101 18 November 2007 Methane explosion Zasyadko, Donetsk, Ukraine 100 8 March 1983 Armutçuk, Ereğli, Zonguldak, Turkey 94 5 December 1984 Haishan, Taipei, Taiwan 93 16 October 1981 Hokutan Yubari, Yubari, Hokkaidō, Japan 92 20 May 1919 Nová Jáma, Orlová, Czech Republic 92 18 November 1989 Rudnici, Aleksinac, Nisava District, Serbia 92 22 July 2001 Gangzi, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, China 92 5 June 1919 Baltimore Colliery explosion, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, U.S. 91 27 November 1996 Dongcun, Datong, Shanxi, China 91 10 January 1940 Bartley, West Virginia, U.S. 91 2 May 1972 Hard rock mine fire Sunshine mine, Kellogg, Idaho, U.S. 89 11 March 1997 Xingsheng, Pingdingshan, Henan, China 86 13 May 2003 Luling coal mine, Hefei, Anhui, China 84 15 February 1982 Ocean Ranger oil platform sinking, Grand Banks of Newfoundland, Canada 84 9 December 1911 Cross Mountain Mine disaster, Briceville, Tennessee, U.S. 83 18 January 1984 Mitsui Miike coal mine, Ōmuta, Fukuoka, Japan 83 13 July 2005 Shenlong, Fukang, Xinjiang Uygur, China 82 11 March 2000 Barakova, Krasnodon, Ukraine 82 5 November 1930 Millfield Mine disaster, Dover Township, Athens County, Ohio, U.S. 78 20 November 1968 Farmington Mine disaster, Farmington, West Virginia, U.S. 76 12 October 1978 Spyros disaster, Singapore 74 23 October 1958 Springhill mining disaster, Springhill, Nova Scotia, Canada 74 27 February 1943 Smith Mine disaster, Bearcreek, Montana, U.S. 73 17 June 2010 San Fernando, Amaga, Antioquia, Colombia[ 72 16 March 1940 Willow Grove No. 10 explosion, Neffs, Ohio, U.S. 72 7 April 1911 Price-Pancoast Colliery fire, Throop, Pennsylvania, U.S. 71 9 March 1961 Ueda Kamikiyo, Kawara, Kyūshū, Japan 71 16 February 1882 Trimdon Grange, County Durham, England 68 2 March 1960 Kukje Rubber Manufacturing plant No.2 fire at Busan, South Korea 68 2 December 1997 Zyryanouskaya, Novokuznetsk, Kuzbass Siberia, Russia 66 16 October 1889 Mossfield, Longton, Staffordshire, U.K. 65 24 February 2006 KTS Composite Textile factory fire, at Chittagong, Bangladesh 65 26 March 1896 Brunner Mine disaster, West Coast, New Zealand 65 19 February 2006 Pasta de Conchos Mine disaster, Coahuila, México 65 4 September 1981 Pluto, Záluží, Czech Republic, Hlobane, Vryheid, Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa 64 2 April 1979 Sverdlovsk anthrax leak, Yekaterinburg, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia 63 31 August 1987 St. Helena gold mine explosion by methane gas, Welkom, Free State, South Africa 63 4 April 1998 Skochynsky, Donetsk, Ukraine 63 15 July 1940 Sonman Mine explosion, Portage, Pennsylvania, U.S. 62 29 July 1867 Hlubina, Ostrava, Czech Republic 61 3 January 1981 Trojice, Ostrava, Czech Republic 60 22 November 2004 Shahe iron mine caught fire, Hebei, China 60 28 May 1997 Beilongfeng, Fushun, Liaoning, China 59 20 March 2005 Xishui mine, Shanxi province, China 59 26 March 1885 Bettina, Orlová, Czech Republic 58 28 June 1896 Twin Shaft Disaster, Pittston, Pennsylvania, U.S. 56 1991 Bright Sparkler fireworks factory explosion at Sungai Buloh, Malaysia 55 25 April 2008 Four-story Rosamor Furniture ameublements plant fire, Lissasfa, Casablanca, Morocco 54 22 May 1960 Hlubina, Ostrava, Czech Republic 54 1860 Františka, Záluží, Czech Republic 54 24 December 1932 1932 Moweaqua Coal Mine disaster, Moweaqua, Illinois, U.S. 53 13 May 1993 Middelbult Colliery explosion, Secunda, Mpumalanga, South Africa 52 19 August 2001 Zasyadka, Donetsk, Ukraine 47 18 September 1959 Auchinloch, North Lanarkshire, Scotland 45 21 March 2011 Surran range, Quetta, Pakistan 45 28 June 1960 Abertillery, Blaenau Gwent, Wales 43 30 December 1976 Staříč, Czech Republic 43 24 February 2003 Muchonggou, Shuicheng, Guizhou, China 40 13 April 1976 Lapua ammunition factory explosion, Finland 39 1 November 1956 Springhill, Nova Scotia, Canada 38 30 December 1970 Hurricane Creek mine disaster, Hyden, Kentucky, U.S. 37 26–27 June 1971 Czechowice-Dziedzice Refinery fire, Poland 36 4 October 1950 Michálka, Ostrava, Czech Republic 36 19 July 2004 Donbass, Donetsk, Ukraine 36 26 January 1924 Lancashire Mine, Shanktown, Pennsylvania, U.S. 35 15 October 1970 West Gate Bridge collapse (during construction), Melbourne, Australia 34 1 December 1907 Naomi Mine explosion, Fayette City, Pennsylvania, U.S. 34 9 June 1970 Dukla, Šardice, Czech Republic 33 1890 Anna, Souš, Czech Republic 31 16 August 1968 Industria Mirafe Toy Factory blast, Ibi, Alicante, Spain[ 31 22 March 1977 ČSA, Karviná, Czech Republic 30 7 September 1985 Osceola Mine fire, copper mine fire in Osceola Township, Houghton County, Michigan, U.S. 30 2 July 1937 Holditch Colliery, Chesterton, Staffordshire, UK 30 18 October 1990 Barbora, Karviná, Czech Republic 30 11 January 2008 Abaiskaya, Abai, Karaganda Oblast, Kazakhstan 29 21 September 2001 AZF factory explosion (chemical), Toulouse, France 29 19 November 2010 Pike River Mine disaster, Greymouth, New Zealand 29 5 April 2010 Upper Big Branch mine explosion, Montcoal, West Virginia, U.S. 29 31 October 1941 Nordegg, Alberta, Canada 28 1 June 1974 Flixborough disaster, England 26 4 April 1970 Paskov, Paskov, Czech Republic 26 9 May 1992 Westray Mine, Nova Scotia, Canada 25 7 May 1985 Doubrava[Czech Republic 25 7 February 1881 Chatterley Whitfield, Staffordshire, England 24 13 November 2003 Nanshan Colliery disaster, Shanxi Province, China 24 12 February 1949 Doubrava[Czech Republic 23 23 October 1989 Phillips Disaster, Pasadena, Texas, U.S. 23 21 November 2006 Methane explosion in Halemba coal mine, Ruda Śląska, Poland 22 14 September 1997 Hindustan Petroleum Refinery fire, Vishakapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India 21 15 January 1919 Boston Molasses Disaster, Massachusetts, U.S. 21 5 November 1962 Kings Bay, Svalbard, Norway 20 10 August 2009 2009 Handlová mine blast, Handlová, Slovakia 19 10 January 1990 Methane explosion in Halemba coal mine, Ruda Śląska Poland 17 24 December 2008 Gas leak, Ganglu Iron and Steel Co Ltd., Hebei, China 17 22 February 1994 Merriespruit tailings dam disaster, Virginia, Free State, South Africa 17 8 June 1925 Mine No. 9, Sturgis, Union County, Kentucky, U.S. 16 16 October 2008 Ningxia, China 15 17 April 2013 West Fertilizer Company explosion, West, Texas, U.S. 15 23 March 2005 BP Americas Texas City isomerization unit explosion, Texas City, Texas, U.S. 11 1960 Kingsport, TN Chemical Plant Explosion 11 1975 Robin Hood Flour Company grain storage elevator explosion, Davenport, Iowa, U.S. 11 27 May 1983 Benton fireworks disaster, illegal fireworks operation in Benton, Tennessee, U.S. 11 20 April 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon explosion, Gulf of Mexico 7 2 April 2010 Tesoro Refinery, Anacortes, Washington, U.S. 5 2 October 2007 Xcel Energy Cabin Creek Hydroelectric Plant Fire, Georgetown, Colorado, U.S. Deaths Incident 1,565–4,400 MV Doña Paz (Tablas Strait, Philippines, 20 December 1987). Casualty estimates vary because of overloading and unmanifested passengers 2,750–3,920 SS Kiangya (off Shanghai, December 1948). Estimates of casualties vary due to large number of stowaways on board 1,863 MV Le Joola (Senegal, 26 September 2002) 1,547 Sultana (Mississippi River, 27 April 1865) 1,517 RMS Titanic (North Atlantic, 15 April 1912) 1,500 Steamer Hai Chu (Bocca Tigris, 1945) 1,500 Taiping, (East China Sea, 1949) 1,159 Toya Maru (Tsugaru Strait, 1954) 1,021 SS General Slocum (New York, 15 June 1904) 1,018 MS al-Salam Boccaccio 98 (Red Sea, 3 February 2006) 1,012 RMS Empress of Ireland, (Saint Lawrence River, 29 May 1914) 1,000 SS Kiche Maru (off Honshu, Japan, 22 September 1912) 1,000 SS Hsin-Yu (Zhoushan, 1916) 1,000 SS Hong Moh (South China Sea, 1921) 894 MV Bukoba (Lake Victoria, Tanzania, 1996) 852 MS Estonia (Baltic Sea, 28 September 1994) 844 SS Eastland (Chicago, 24 July 1915) 832 MV Princess of Stars capsized by Typhoon Fengshen off Sibuyan Island, Philippines, 21 June 2008 746 SS Vaitarna (lost in cyclonic storm of coast of Saurashtra, India, 8 November 1888) 737 SS Camorta (Irrawaddy Delta, 1902) 702 Slave trade ship Leusden, (Marowijne Suriname, 18 January 1738) 673 HMS Queen Charlotte (Cabrera, 1800) 640 SS Princess Alice and SS Bywell Castle (River Thames, 1878) 627 SS Norge (Rockall, 1904) 625 1947 Ramdas Ship Disaster, SS Ramdas (Bombay, 1947) 608 Novorossiysk (Sevastopol, 1955) 600 Shamia (Meghna River, southern Barisa, Bangladesh, May 1986) 587 Ertuğrul (off Kushimoto, Japan, 1890) 580 Indonesian passenger ship Tampomas 2 (caught fire and sank in Java Sea, January 1981) 570 HMS Minotaur (off Texel, Netherlands, 22 December 1810) 558 SS Principe de Asturias (off Brazil, 1916) 550 Cahaya Bahari (off Sulawesi, Indonesia, 2000) 546 RMS Atlantic (Nova Scotia, 1873) 528 MV Nazreen 1 (Chandpur, Bangladesh, July 2003) 500 Atlas Star (Dhaleswar River, Munshiganj, Bangladesh, 1986) 497 Ebisu Maru (off Tokushima, Japan, 1946) 496 Saint-Philibert (off Île de Noirmoutier, France, 1931) 464 Salem Express (off Safaga, Egypt, 1991) 461 MV Senopati Nusantara (off Mandalika Island, Indonesia, 2006) 442 MV Dong Fang Zhi Xing capsized by a tornadic waterspout on the (Yangtze River, China, 1 June 2015) 438 Baccha Singh (Manihari Ghat, Bihar, River Ganges, 6 August 1988) 423 SS Admiral Nakhimov (Black Sea, 31 August 1986) 400 Reina Regenta (off Gibraltar, 11 March 1895) 400 PS Lady Elgin (Chicago, 1860) 400 Cataraqui (King Island, Australia, 1865) 397 Toyo Maru 10 (near Kurushima, Japan, 1945) 392 SS Himera (off Athens, Greece, 19 January 1947) 389 Filipino ferry MV Doña Marilyn capsized during Typhoon Ruby off Maripipi Island, Philippines, 24 October 1988 361 KM Bismas Raya 2 (off Merauke, Irian Jaya, Indonesia, October 1999) 358 Drummond Castle, (off Ouessant, France, 16 June 1896) 358 HMS Victoria (near Tripoli, Lebanon, 1893) 357 10th of Ramadan (Lake Nasser, Egypt, 1983) 353 SIEV-X (off Indonesia, 2001) 350 Annie James (off Vatersay, Outer Hebrides, United Kingdom, 1853) 340 Shalahuddin 2 (Meghna River, Bangladesh, 2002) 338 Gurita (off Sabang, Aceh, Indonesia, January 1996) 325 Harta Limba (off Kalimantan, Indonesia, 1999) 314 Principessa Mafalda (off Porto Seguro, Bahia, Brazil, 25 October 1927) 308 Namyong-Ho (Korean Strait, 1970) 304 Japanese passenger boat Sekirei Maru capsized with crush by windy conditions (off northwestern Awaji Island, Japan, 9 December 1945.) 304 An unnamed immigrant vessel sinks off Lampedusa (3 October 2013) 304 Sewol-Ho capsized off South-Korea (16 April 2014) 300 Steamer "Hsinwah" sinks off Waglan Island, Hongkong, China (15 January 1929) 300 Brazilian river boat Sobral Santos capsized (Amazon River, Óbidos, Brazil, 20 September 1981) 300 Filipino motor vessel Dumagnete capsized off Zamboanga, Mindanao, Philippines, 11 October 1968 297 RMS Tayleur, (Lambay, Ireland, 1854) 292 A Seohae, South Korean ferry, West Sea, overloaded with 362 people, capsized off Puan county 10 October 1993 289 A boat of clandestine immigrants sank near Portopalo, Italy, 1996 280 Chinese ferry Dashun caught fire and capsized in rough seas off Yellow Sea, Yantai, Shandong, China, 24 November 1999 280 Nigerian passenger boat capsized at Ibaka, Akwa Ibom, Nigeria, April 1998 280 Myanmar passenger ferry U Hla Myist sunk by colliding with Japanese vessel Bombei Maru at Yangon Bay, Myanmar, February 1973 279 Filipino floating pagoda capsized in Bocaue river, northern Manila, Philippines, 2 July 1993 274 USS Maine (Havana, Cuba, 15 February 1898) it is disputed whether this was accidental or an act of terrorism 272 Turkish ferry SS Üsküdar capsized and sank at Bay of İzmit, Kocaeli, Turkey, 1 March 1958 272 Kenyan ferry MV Mtongwe sank at Mtongwe, Mombasa, Kenya, 1994 260 Earl of Abergavenny (off Portland Bill, 1805) 260 Nuestra Señora de Atocha (Florida Keys, 1622) 259 Portuguese passenger ship Save ran aground off Mozambique, 8 July 1961 254 Vietnamese refugee boat capsized off Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia, 22 November 1978 250 Powhattan sunk off New Jersey, 16 April 1854 250 Great Lakes Storm of 1913 (Great Lakes Basin, 1913) 250 Russian liner Ogoza sank in the Black Sea, 1928 250 Bangladeshi ferry MV Dinar gone down in strong whirlpool at Meghna River, Chandpul, Bangladesh, 20 August 1994 250 Chinese steamer Lee Cheong sank in a storm off Swabue (21 December 1929) 249 Chang Tyong-Ho (Busan, South Korea, 1953) 241 SS G. P. Griffith burned and sank in Lake Erie, 17 June 1850. The number of lives lost may have been as high as 289. 240+ MV Teratai Prima sinking (near Sulawesi, Indonesia, 11 January 2009) 230 Brazilian double-decker boat Novo Amapá capsized (Amazon River, Pará, Brazil, 1981) 230 Bangladeshi ferry Rushi capsized by stormy condition at Padma River, Bangladesh, April 1980 226 Ville du Havre (North Atlantic, 1873) 224 Neva sunk off (King Island, Tasmania Australia) 13 May 1835 220 Nigerian passenger boat capsized by stormy sea off Uyo, Akwa Ibom, Nigeria, 24 January 1996 217 SS Heraklion (Souda, Crete, Greece, 8 December 1966) Official death toll; exact fatality count unknown 215 Myanmar double-decker ferry sank during storm at Gyaing River, 1990 211 SS Waratah, disappeared without trace off Durban, South Africa, July 1909 210 Illegal African immigrants boat sank off Sfax, Tunisia, 2003 209 Naval transport ship Angamos sank during a storm in the Bay of Arauco, Chile, 7 July 1928 209 Seven Japanese fishing boats sunk by Super typhoon Carmen (off Agrihan, 1965) 206 Egyptian ferry boat Adel capsized at Upper Nile, Maghagha, Governorate, Egypt, May 1963 205 HMS Iolaire (off Stornoway, 1919) 205 SS Hungarian Wrecked off Cape Sable, Shelburne County, Nova Scotia, Canada 20 February 1860 200 Explosion on the Chinese passenger steamer Pa Shi, 1931 200 Victoria (London, Ontario, 1881) 200 Indonesian passenger ferry KMP Digul capsized in rough sea off Merakuke, Papua, Indonesia, July 2005 200 Bangladeshi passenger ferry Haisal rammed by collide with cargo vessel at Dhaleswari river, Bangladesh, December 1988 200 SS Xi'an passenger ferry fire in Hong Kong (4 February 1947) 193 Herald of Free Enterprise (English Channel, 6 March 1987) 192 Two illegal immigrants boats sank off Gulf of Aden, Yemen, 2007 189 MV Maharaj (Buriganga River, Bangladesh, 2005) 189 HMS Orpheus, (Auckland, 1863) 185 Batavia (off Australia, 1629) includes both drowned and murdered 182 Congo ferry Dieu Merci capsized at Mai-Ndombe Lake, Bandunu, Democratic Republic of Congo, 27 November 2003 180 Somali refugee boat capsized off Gulf of Aden, Yemen, 31 March 1998 177 Russian cruise ship Aleksandr Suvorov crashed into a railroad bridge at Volga River, Ulyanovsk, southwestern Russia, 5 June 1983 171 Chinese sightseeing boat sank at Songhua River, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China, August 1985 170 Staffordshire (Cape Sable, 1853) 168 Shiun Maru (Takamatsu, Japan, 1955) 167 Japanese ferry Nankai Maru capsized off southern Awaji Island, Japan, 26 January 1958 167 Dona Cassandra sunk by typhoon Orchid (off Mindanao, 1983) 165 Tamil refugees boat capsized off Nanchchikuddah, Sri Lanka, 20 February 1997 161 Romanian passenger boat Mogosoaia sunk by collision with Bulgarian barge Peter Karaminchev at Danube River, Galaţi, Romania, 10 September 1989 159 Scandinavian Star (Skagerrak, 1990) 158 Sierra Leone boat Amunafa capsized off coast Bailor, Sierra Leone, 3 August 2007 150 Peruvian ferry La Chachita capsized at Marañón River, central Peru, 7 May 1991 150 Overloaded motorized canoe capsized off Tasso Island, Sierra Leone, 25 March 1999 150 A pontoon ferry sink by overturned on Shire River, Malawi, 23 May 1965 150 Colombian excursion ship Vencedor capsized off Buenaventura, Valle del Cauca, Colombia, September 1961 148 French frigate Méduse (off Senegal, 1816) 147 Chinese passenger ferry Red Star 312 capsized at Shanshui, Guangdong, China on 2 March 1983 140 SS Koombana (off Port Hedland, Western Australia, 1912) 140 Danish passenger ship Kjoebenhavn capsized after striking mine off coast of Jutland, Denmark, June 1948 140 Italian ferry Moby Prince collide with oil tanker, dense fog off Livorno, Tuscany, Italy, 1991 140 Two African immigrants boat sank off Seferihisar, Turkey, 2007 140 Filipino ferry MV Cebu City capsized and collision with freighter Kota Suria off Manila Bay, Philippines, 2 December 1994 137 SS Morro Castle (off Asbury Park, New Jersey, 8 September 1934) 136 SS Valencia (off the coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, 22 January 1906) 136 Finnish steamer SS Kuru capsized in autumnal storms at Lake Näsijärvi, near city of Tampere, 7 September 1929 134 Peruvian passenger boat Adresito capsized at Amazon River, Iquitos, Loreto Maynas, Peru, 6 March 1990 134 RMS Quetta struck a rock in the Adophus Channel of Cape York, Queensland on 28 February 1890 131 Chinese passenger boat Rong Jian capsized at Hejiang River, Rongshan, Sichuan, China, June 2000 131 Tararua (off Waipapa Point, New Zealand, 1881) 130 SS Hankow fire (Hong Kong, 14 October 1906) 130 SS Volturno (Burned and sank in the North Atlantic, 1913) 130 MV Princess Victoria (Scotland, 1953) 130 Nigerian ferry Olodiama collided with a tugboat off Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria, September 1997 130 Thai ferry boat Sathit collided with chemical tanker at Gulf of Thailand, Si Racha, Thailand, March 1992 129 USS Thresher (N. Atlantic, 1963) 128 SS City of Rio de Janeiro (San Francisco Bay, 1901) 128 Ferry SS Berlin struck the pier near Hook of Holland (the Netherlands), 21 February 1907 128 HMS Gladiator (Isle of Wight, 1908) 128 Greek cruise ship TSMS Lakonia sunk after fire on board off Madeira, Portugal, 28 December 1962 125 SS Bokhara (Formosa, 1892) 124 SS Yongala (Townsville, Australia, 1911) 124 Djibouti ferry Al Baraqua 2 capsized off Tadjoura, Djibouti, 6 April 2006 122+ Russian river cruise ship Bulgaria capsized on the Kuybyshev Reservoir of the Volga River in Tatarstan, Russia, 10 July 2011 120 Ghanan motorboat capsized at Lake Volta, Jasikan, Ghana, 10 April 2006 118-139 (est) Template:SS Noronic caught fire while docked in Toronto, Ontario, 17 September 1949 118 Kursk (Barents Sea, 2000) 117 Kinka Maru (Onagawa, northeastern Miyagi, Japan, 1946) 113 Japanese wooden passenger boat Kitagawa Maru 5 capsized at Onomichi, Japan, April 1957 111 SS Vestris (North Atlantic, 1928) 105 Iranian motor vessel Viaqtar capsized off Abu Dhabi, UAE, on 14 March 1970 104 Yugoslav river boat Niš, capsized on the Danube River near Belgrade, Serbia, 9 September 1952 102 SS Gothenburg. (Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, 24 February 1875) 100 Brazilian cruise boat Bateau Mouche capsized at Copacabana beach, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1 January 1989 99 USS Scorpion (near Azores, 1968) 92 Japanese passenger boat Koun Maru sunk by rough sea off Misumi, Amakusa, western Kyūshū, Japan, 1 October 1933 90 SS Yarmouth Castle (Bahamas, 13 November 1965) 89 SS Admella wrecked off South Australia, Australia, 6 August 1859 85 Illegal African immigrants boat sank Mareg, Puntland, Yemen, 2003 84 Paisley Canal Disaster, canal pleasure boat capsized, Paisley 10 November 1810 82 STV Royston Grange (off Montevideo, Uruguay, 1972) 81 MS Express Samina (near Paros, Greece, 2000) 81 Turkish submarine TCG Dumlupınar collided with the Swedish freighter Naboland and sunk at Dardanelles Turkey, 4 April 1953 80 Pamir (1957) 80 Hong Kong ferry Fatshan plunged by torrential typhoon Rose, 17 August 1971 78 Greek tanker Spyros exploded at Jurong shipyard, Singapore, 12 October 1978 78 MV George Prince ferry sank after colliding with the Norwegian tanker SS Frosta on the Mississippi River, 20 October 1976 74 MV Princess Ashika sunk while on a regular ferry service in Tonga due to the combined effects of the boats age and lack of maintenance leading to its unseaworthiness, 5 August 2009. 70 Ming 361 (2003) 61 Turkish fishing boat carrying illegal migrants sank after hitting rocks (2012) 58 Bahrain wooden pleasure boat al-Dana capsized off Gulf of Bahrain, 2006 57 Danish passenger boat Turisten Killing 57 pass. after fire on board on Haderslev Dam, 8 July 1959 54 MS Jan Heweliusz (Baltic Sea, 1993) 53 Finnish torpedo boat S2, in autumnal storms at Outoori, near Pori, 1925 51 TEV Wahine (Wellington, NZ, 1968) 51 SS Andrea Doria (off Nantucket, Massachusetts 1956) 51 Marchioness (River Thames, London 1989). 131 people on board leisure craft for a birthday party when accidentally rammed and sunk by Thames dredger Bowbelle 48 Brazilian river boat Comandante Sales capsized at Solimoes River, on the outskirts of Manacapura, Amazonas, Brazil, 4 May 2008 46 PCC-772 Cheonan Pohang class corvette (Baengnyeong-do island, South Korea, 26 March 2010) 45 SS Elingamite (Three Kings Islands, NZ, 1902) 44 British bulk carrier MV Derbyshire capsized by structural failure and Typhoon Orchid off Ryukyu Island, 9 September 1980 42 Masbate, Philippines (including 11 children) crowded Don Dexter Cathlyn, inter-island ferry was hit by a squall and overturned; 76 of 119 passengers were rescued, but 10 were still missing, on 4 November 2008. 39 Lamma IV, collision by Sea Smooth (Hong Kong, 1 October 2012) 36 FV Gaul (Barents Sea, 1974) 36 Ellan Vannin (Liverpool, United Kingdom en route from the Isle of Man), December 1909 35 HMS Pandora (Torres Strait, 1791) 32 River Dee Ferry Boat Disaster (Aberdeen, United Kingdom, 1876) 32 Costa Concordia (cruise ship capsized off the coast of Isola del Giglio, Italy, 13 January 2012) 31 SS Carnatic (Red Sea, 1869) 29 SS Edmund Fitzgerald (Lake Superior, 1975) 28 Soviet submarine K-19 (to fire, 24 February 1972) 23 Pajtás passenger boat (Hungary, Lake Balaton, 30 May 1954, capsized by design flaws, when all passengers gathered on one side of the ship to watch a sailing competition to start) 22 Shek Kong Vietnamese refugee detention centre fire (Hong Kong, 3 February 1992) 20 Ethan Allen (Lake George, 2 October 2005) 18 Migrant boat sank off Lesbos, Greece (2012) 17 1979 Fastnet race (Fastnet Rock, 1979) 16 MS Sleipner (Norway, 1999) 14 Danish passenger ship SS Agda sank after striking mine near by the coast of Horsens, Denmark, 15 January 1944 13 Essex (South Pacific, 1819) 13 MS Norman Atlantic (Strait of Otranto, 2014) The ferry caught fire in the Adriatic Sea off Corfu, Greece and was burnt out. 13 of the 478 people on board were killed, 2 during salvage. 8 Bourbon Dolphin (Offshore of Shetland, 2007) The ship capsized and sank three days later. 6 Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race (Bass Strait, 1998) Deaths Incident 200 Mayak nuclear waste storage tank explosion, (Chelyabinsk, Soviet Union, 29 September 1957), 270,000 people were exposed to dangerous radiation levels. 31 to 4,000+ Chernobyl disaster, Ukraine, 26 April 1986. The official report is 31 immediate deaths, 64 recorded cancer deaths by 2008, and potentially up to, but no more than 4,000 total cancer deaths. Far higher death toll estimates have been made, but are disputed. 17 Instituto Oncologico Nacional of Panama, August 2000 – March 2001; patients receiving treatment for cancer receive lethal doses of radiation. 13 Radiotherapy accident in Costa Rica, 1996 (114 patients received an overdose of radiation) 11 Radiotherapy accident in Zaragoza, Spain, December 1990 (27 patients were injured) 10 Soviet submarine K-431 accident, 10 August 1985 (49 people suffered radiation injuries) 10 Columbus radiotherapy accident, 1974–1976, 88 injuries 9 Soviet submarine K-27 accident, 24 May 1968. (83 people were injured) 8 Soviet submarine K-19 accident, 4 July 1961. (More than 30 people were over-exposed to radiation) 8 Radiation accident in Morocco, March 1984 7 Houston radiotherapy accident, 1980 5 Mihama Nuclear Power Plant accident, 9 August 2004. Hot water and steam leaked from a broken pipe 5 Lost radiation source, Baku, Azerbaijan, USSR, 5 October 1982. 13 injuries 4 Goiânia accident, Brazil, 13 September 1987 (249 people received serious radiation contamination) 4 Radiation accident in Mexico City, 1962 3 SL-1 reactor explosion and melt-down (US Army) 1961 3 Samut Prakan radiation accident: Three deaths and ten injuries resulted when a radiation-therapy unit was dismantled, February 2000 2 Tokaimura nuclear accident, nuclear fuel reprocessing plant (Japan, 30 September 1999) Deaths Incident 12,000 The Great Smog (London, 5–9 December 1952) 2,200 Coal smog (London, 1880) 160 Smog (London, 12–15 December 1991) 60 Meuse Valley smog (Belgium, 1930) 50 The 1948 Donora smog (Donora, Pennsylvania, 27–31 October 1948) Deaths Date Incident 7 28 January 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, over Florida, U.S. 7 1 February 2003 Space Shuttle Columbia disaster, over Texas/Louisiana, U.S. 3 27 January 1967 Apollo 1, Kennedy Space Center, Merritt Island, Florida, U.S. – occurred on ground before launch 3 30 June 1971 Soyuz 11, space 1 24 April 1967 Soyuz 1, southeast of Orenburg, Russia 1 15 November 1967 X-15 Flight 191, near Edwards AFB, California, U.S. 1 31 October 2014 VSS Enterprise, suborbital, Mojave Desert, California, U.S. Deaths Incident 590 Happy Valley Racecourse fire, (Happy Valley, Hong Kong, 26 February 1918) 328 1964 Lima football riot tragedy, (Lima, Peru, 24 May 1964) 200 Collapse of wooden bleachers at Corralejas bullring/stadium, Sincelejo, Sucre, Colombia, 20 January 1980 96 Hillsborough stadium crush (Sheffield, England, 1989) 93 Hailstorm & Stadium crush (Kathmandu, Nepal, 1988) 84 1955 Le Mans disaster (motor racing accident) (Le Mans, France, 1955) 79 Port Said Stadium disaster (Port Said, Egypt, 1 February 2012) 71 Puerta 12 crush (Buenos Aires, Argentina, 23 June 1968) 66 Second Ibrox stadium disaster, stairway crowd crush (Glasgow, Scotland, 1971) 66 Luzhniki disaster, stairway crowd crush on a stadium in Moscow, USSR (20 October 1982) 56 Bradford City stadium fire (Bradford, England, 1985) 43 Ellis Park Stadium disaster, football match crush (Johannesburg, South Africa, 11 April 2001) 40 Kayseri Atatürk Stadium disaster football stadium hooliganism (Kayseri, Central Anatolia, Turkey, 17 September 1967) 39 Heysel Stadium disaster football stadium hooliganism (Brussels, Belgium, 1985) 32 2014 Patna stampede (Patna, India, 2014) 33 Burnden Park disaster (Bolton, England, 1946) 28 Italian Grand Prix, Emilio Materassi and 27 spectators was killed when Materassi's car crashed into a grandstand, (Monza, Italy, 1928) 26 First Ibrox stadium disaster, terracing collapse (Glasgow, Scotland, 1902) 24 Drunken football fan provoked a stampede at game Deportivo Cali and América de Cali, Estadio Olímpico Pascual Guerrero, Cali, Valle del Cauca, Colombia, 18 November 1982 22 Spectators on roof of glass factory observing 1900 Big Game college football game caused roof to collapse, causing deaths from falls and burns (San Francisco, 1900) 21 Gate 7 stampede at the old Karaiskakis Stadium at the end of a football game between Olympiacos and AEK Athens (Piraeus, Greece, 8 February 1981) 18 Temporary grand stand collapsed, before French Cup semi-final match SC Bastia and Olympique Marseille, Bastia, Corsica, France, 5 May 1992. 17 1979 Fastnet yachting race storms (Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 1979) 15 1961 Italian Grand Prix, Autodromo Nazionale Monza (Formula 1 race): Wolfgang Von Trips and 14 spectators were killed when Von Trips' car was thrown amidst the audience (Monza, Italy, 1961) 13 Mille Miglia road race: driver Alfonso de Portago, his co-driver/navigator, Ed Nelson and nine spectators was killed when Portago and Nelson ploughed into spectators.(Guidizzolo, Mantua; Italy, 12 May 1957). Also includes 2 separate deaths earlier in the race. (Reggio Emilia and Florence) 13 1953 Argentine Grand Prix: driver Nino Farina ploughed into the crowds on lap 31, killing 13 spectators, Autódromo Juan y Oscar Gálvez, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 18 January 1953 13 2008 Congo football riots: Democratic Republic of Congo football league second division of Socozaki and Nyuki System match riot at Matokeo stadium, Butembo, North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo, 14 September 2008 13 Grenzlandring, 13 killed and 42 injured including the driver himself when his car went out of control and plunged into spectators, Wegberg, Mönchengladbach, Germany; 31 August 1952 12 Yellow River Dragstrip, an out of control dragster crashed through a chain-link fence into a spectator area, killing 11 instantly. The twelfth person died later in hospital. (Covington, Georgia, 1969) 12 Baker Bowl bleachers collapse, Philadelphia, 8 August 1903 11 Auto race at New York State Fairgrounds, when a car went through a rail fence into the crowd, (Syracuse, New York, 1911) 11 2011 Reno Air Races crash, 11 killed including the pilot Jimmy Leeward when his aircraft plunged into VIP booths in front of the grandstands (Reno Stead Airport, Reno, Nevada; 16 September 2011) 9 The Racetrack Disaster of Berlin: 9 killed, 52 injured in a cycling event when a motorcycle pacemaker crashed into spectators at a newly built velodrome (Berlin Botanical Garden, Berlin, Germany; 18 July 1909) 8 Egyptian Premier League cross ryval Koroum and Al-Ittihad football match stampede at Alexandria Stadium, northern Egypt, 11 January 1999 8 1903 Paris-Madrid race, a chain of accidents occurred causing deaths to drivers and spectators and destruction to properties. The race which was called to a halt at Bordeaux. 8 2010 California 200 Off Road race, eight spectators killed when an off road truck rolled into the gallery 6 1998 Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race, in which six sailors died and many other yachts had to retire after being caught in a large storm 6 Saloon car race at the 1977 Malaysian Grand Prix, six children killed when a car struck into a fence, following a tire blowout; Batu Tiga Circuit, Selangor, Shah Alam. 6 Vailsburg Motordrome, two riders including Eddie Hasha and four spectators died and 17 injured through a chain of events that began when Hasha collided into a rail (Vailsburg, Newark; September 8, 1912). Deaths Incident 6,000 Ponte das Barcas disaster in Porto, 1809. A multitude of civilians fleeing from an advancing French army tried to cross the Douro river passing over a fragile pontoon bridge, which collapsed 4,000 Mass panic at air raid shelter, during Japanese bombing of Chongqing, most deaths caused by suffocation (Chongqing, China, 1941) 1,426 Stampede by pilgrims inside a pedestrian tunnel (Mecca, 1990) 1,389 Khodynka Tragedy at coronation of Nicholas II, (Moscow, 1896) 953 Baghdad bridge stampede, (Baghdad, Iraq, 2005) (note: because the stampede was triggered by reports of a bombing, this figure is also included in the higher estimate for casualties of the War in Iraq) 800 1954 Kumbh Mela stampede, crowd crush at religious festival (Allahabad, India, 1954) 357 Phnom Penh stampede (Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 2010) 354 Galleria delle Grazie (Genoa, Italy, 1942) 362 Stampede at the stoning of the devil ritual (Mecca, 2006) 270 Stampede at the stoning of the devil ritual (Mecca, 1994) 258 Crowd crush at religious festival (Wai, Maharashtra, India, 2005) 251 Stampede at the stoning of the devil ritual (Mecca, 2004) 224 2008 Jodhpur stampede disaster in Chamunda Devi temple (Rajasthan, India, 30 September 2008) 200 Stampede in the central place of Nagpur (Maharashtra, India, 1992) 183 Victoria Hall theatre stairway crush (Sunderland, 1883) 173 Bethnal Green tube station panic (London, 1943) 162 Naina Devi Temple stampede disaster (Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh, India, 3 August 2008) 130 1994 Gowari stampede in Maharashtra State Legislature building (Nagpur, India, 23 November 1994) 124 New Year event stampede at Yahiko Shrine (Yahiko, central Niigata, Japan, 1 January 1956) 123 Hearts of Oak vs. Kumasi Ashanti Kotoko football match crush (Accra, Ghana, 2001) 118 Pilgrims trampled to death (Mecca, 1998) 110 Carnival stampede (Valletta, Malta, 1823) 105 Yingze Park lantern festival stampede disaster in Taiyuan, Shanxi, China, (10 October 1991) 102 2011 Sabarimala stampede, broken out during an annual pilgrimage (Sabarimala, Kerala, India, 14 January 2011) 100 The Station nightclub fire, fourth-deadliest nightclub fire in U.S. history (West Warwick, Rhode Island, 20 February 2003) 96 Hillsborough disaster crush (Sheffield, England, 1989) 84 Guatemala and Costa Rica football match crush (Guatemala City, 16 October 1996) 78 PhilSports Arena stampede, (Manila, Philippines, 4 February 2006) 77 Stampede and panics at Kyoto railroad station (Japan, 8 January 1934) 73 Italian Hall disaster (Calumet, Michigan, 1913) 72 River Plate vs Boca Juniors football match, stampede at gate 12 (Buenos Aires, Argentina, 23 June 1968) 70 Glen Cinema Disaster, panic caused by smouldering cinema film, Glen Cinema, (Paisley, Scotland, 31 December 1929) 67 1959 Busan stadium stampede disaster: Typhoon Billie forced the evacuation of thousands of people through tight corridors of a stadium (Busan, South Korea, 17 July 1959) 66 Second Ibrox disaster crush (Glasgow, Scotland, 1971) 66 Luzhniki disaster, football match crush (Moscow, USSR. 20 October 1982) 61 Abidjan stampede disaster, (Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, 1 January 2013) 60 Jean Monthe Institute secondary school panic disaster, (Yaoundé, Cameroon, 6 December 1988) 60 A tent fire after stampede, during local festival parade (Jamshedpur, Bihar, India on 3 March 1989) 56 Los Angeles de San Rafael square stampede disaster, during contest event (Segovia, Castile-León, Spain, 15 June 1969) 53 Niamiha metro station stampede (Minsk, Belarus, 31 May 1999) 52 Hengyang railroad station stampede disaster, during Lunar New Year holidays of final day, Hengyang, Hunan, China (14 February 1994) 51 Yemeni presidential candidate Ali Abdullah Saleh election rally stampede disaster (Zunjubar, Ibb Governorate, Yemen, 13 September 2006) 50 Mahamaham Stampede disaster (Kumbakonam, Tamil Nadu, India on 18 February 1992) 45 Qutab Minar Tower stampede disaster by electric power failure (Delhi, India, 4 December 1981) 44 Kayseri Atatürk Stadium disaster (Kayseri, Central Anatolia, Turkey, 17 September 1968) 42 Ellis Park Stadium Disaster (Johannesburg, South Africa, 11 April 2001) 39 Heysel Stadium disaster (Brussels, 29 May 1985) 37 Mihong Park Lantern Festival stampede disaster (Miyun, Beijing, China, 5 February 2004) 36 Modibo Keita Stadium stampede disaster (Bamako, Mali on 21 February 2011), 2013 Kumbh Mela stampede (Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India), 2014 Shanghai stampede (The Bund, Shanghai, China) 33 Kumbh Mela bathing festival stampede disaster (Nasik, Maharashtra, India, 26 August 2003) 29 Mosque stampede (Karachi, 2006) 27 Granadilla Civil Governor Office stapede disaster, during waiting to apply for local identify card (Granadilla, Tenerife Island, Spain, 2 February 1963)[ 26 Djinuereber Mosque stampede disaster (Timbuktu, Mali, February 2010)[ 25 A stampede by building collapse, during Shiva ratri festival (Patna, Bihar, India, 6 March 1989) 24 Estadio Olímpico Pascual Guerrero Stampede Disaster (Cali, Colombia, 18 November 1982) 23 al-Mureikh Stadium stampede disaster, during graduation ceremony (Omdurman, Sudan 13 July 2008) 21 Lan Kwai Fong stampede disaster (Hong Kong, 1 January 1993) 21 Love Parade stampede (Duisburg, Germany, 24 July 2010) 21 2003 E2 nightclub stampede (Chicago, IL, USA, 17 February 2003) 20 Steve Kekana concert stampede disaster (Maseru, Lesotho, 29 August 1980) 20 Mexican singar Martinez Gil and twist singer Pily Gaos concert stampede disaster (Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico, 31 January 1965) 19 Synagogue stampede during the fast of Yom Kippur (Ostrowo, Germany, 10 October 1872) 19 Stampede disaster after Christina Nilsson's appearance at a window of Grand Hôtel (Stockholm, Sweden, 23 September 1885) 13 News Divine nightclub stampede disaster (Nueva Atzacoalco, Mexico City, 20 June 2008) 13 Throb Nightclub stampede disaster (Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, 24 March 2000) 12 Crush on Brooklyn Bridge, four days after opening (New York City, 30 May 1883) 11 Crowd crush at The Who concert at the Riverfront Coliseum (Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America, 3 December 1979) 11 Eleven killed and 247 injured in a pedestrian crush after a fireworks festival (Akashi, Hyōgo, Japan, 21 July 2001) 11 Alexandria Stadium football match stampede disaster (Northern Egypt, January 1999) 10 All Africa Arts Hall concert stampede disaster (Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, 10 February 2008) 9 Pearl Jam performance at Roskilde Festival (Denmark, 30 June 2000) Deaths Incident 1,129 Collapse of the Rana Plaza (Savar Upazila, Dhaka District, Bangladesh, 24 April 2013) 502 Sampoong Department Store collapse (Seoul, South Korea, 29 June 1995) 200 Collapse of wooden bleachers at Corralejas bullring/stadium, Sincelejo, Sucre, Colombia, 20 January 1980 140 Makahali River bridge collapsed, Baitadi, Makahali, Nepal, on 19 November 1974 139 a six-story apartment collapsed at Karachi, Pakistan on 13 September 1976 135 Collapse of the Royal Plaza Hotel (Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand, 13 August 1993) 125 a wire rope style bridge collapsed over a swollen stream at Munnar, Kerala, India, 8 November 1984 120 a nuns' school chapel collapsed at Biblian, Canar, Ecuador on 1 February 1963 115 Synagogue Church Building collapsed at Lagos State, Nigeria on 12 September 2014 114 Hyatt Regency walkway collapse, (Kansas City, Missouri, 1981) 112 Yeotmal Shia Imami Ismaili mosque situated in choti gujri, Yavatmal collapsed disaster, present day of Yavatmal, Maharashtra, India on 20 August 1963.[ 100 Saque Comprehensive College collapsed at Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria, 16 June 1990 94 Eleven-story apartment building collapsed at Konya, central Turkey, on 2 February 2004 94 Pétionville school collapse, (Pétionville, Haiti, 7 November 2008) 84 Shigotani dormitory site of under construction Kurobe hydro power-plant station hit avalanche by heavy snow at Kurobe, Toyama, Japan, on 27 December 1938 82 Church tower Geldrop, Netherlands, during storm on 27 December 1627 75 Quebec Bridge, (Canada, 1907) 74 Cinema theatre roof collapse (Tokamachi, Japan, 1 January 1938) 73 Six dormitories of Abe coal mine company collapse with heavy rain at Sasebo, northwestern Kyūshū, Japan, on 16 April 1955 71 Dhaka University assembly hall collapsed, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 16 October 1985 70 116-year-old Hintze-Ribeiro Bridge collapse, with a bus and three cars plunged into Douro River at Castelo de Paiva, Aveiro, Portugal on 4 March 2001 70 A three-story house collapsed at Lal Bazzar, Srinagar, Jammu and Kasjhhimir, India on 4 May 1992 69 Gameleira Exhibition Pavilion collapse (Belo Horizonte, Brazil, 4 February 1971) 67 Six-story apartment building collapsed at Foggia, Apulia, Italy, on 13 November 1999 65 Katowice Trade Hall roof collapse (Chorzów, Poland, 28 January 2006) 64 Twelve-story upmarket building collapsed at Heliopolis, outskirt of Cairo, Egypt, 27 October 1996 61 Apartment building under construction collapsed at Moulivakkam, Chennai in India on 28 June 2014 60 Under construction Hau River bridge collapsed at Cần Thơ, Vĩnh Long, Vietnam, on 26 September 2007 60 Run Pathani bridge collapsed by flood swept in Mardan, Pashtunkhwa, Pakistan on August 2006 60 Under-construction Tuojiang bridge collapsed in Fenghuang, Hunan, China on 13 August 2007 58 Via Canosa in Barletta building collapse a five-story apartment building collapsed, Barletta, Apulia, Italy on 15 September 1959 56 Market roof collapse (Moscow, Russia, 21 February 2006) 54 2013 Riga Maxima superstore collapse (Riga, Latvia, 21 November 2013) 51 Moqattam Hill rockslide disaster in Manshiyet Nasser erea, Cairo, Egypt, 6 September 2008 50 Ordzhonokidze Machine Tool factory roof collapsed by heavy snow at Moscow, Russia, 17 January 1982 49 Cais do Sodré railroad station collapsed at Lisbon, Portugal, May 1963 48 Hulu Kelang Highland Towers collapsed at Ampang, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 11 December 1993 48 Paulo de Frontin Elevated Expressway collapse (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 20 November 1971) 47 Miles City, Montana bridge collapse (United States, 1938) 46 Silver Bridge Collapse (United States, 1967) 45 Under-construction Kota Chambal River Bridge collapse in Kota, Rajasthan, India on December 2009.[ 42 Cavalese cable-car disaster, (Italy, 1976) 42 Interstate 880 (Oakland, California, Collapsed due to earthquake, 17 October 1989.) 35 West Gate Bridge collapse, (Australia, 1970) 35 Illegally built seven-story building collapse at Alexandria, Egypt, 24 December 2007 34 Six-story apartment building collapsed at Castellaneta, Puglia, Taranto, Italy, 7 February 1985 33 Hotel New World disaster, six-story building collapsed at Serangoon Road, Singapore, March 1986 32 Sultan Abdul Halim ferry terminal bridge collapsed at Butterworth, Penang, Malaysia, 31 July 1988 32 Seongsu Bridge collapsed in Han River, Seoul, South Korea on October 1994 29 Under-construction Baikong bridge collapsed, Ruyuan, Shaoguan, Guangdong, China, on 20 December 1996 28 L'Ambiance Plaza collapsed during construction, Bridgeport, Connecticut, USA, 23 April 1987 28 Transvaal Park roof collapsed, Moscow, Russia, 14 February 2004 27 The Ironworkers Memorial Second Narrows Crossing collapsed during construction in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 17 June 1958 26 Shojuso elderly house with sixty apartment building destroyed by landslide (Nagano, Japan, 26 July 1985) 24 Unlicenced construct four-story apartment buildings collapsed at Cairo, Egypt, 3 May 1984 23 Versailles wedding hall, Jerusalem, Israel. Large portion of the third floor of the four-story building collapsed during a wedding, 24 May 2001 20 Cavalese cable car disaster, (Italy, 1998) cable severed by United States Marine Corps military aircraft 20 Toyohama road tunnel collapse, Furubira, Hokkaidō, Japan, February 1996 20 Chunchu suspension bridge collapse, Napalgunj, Birendranagar, Nepal, 25 December 2007. Another 15 missing 19 a seven-story apartment building collapsed at Saadatabad, Teheran, Iran on 1 July 2008 17 Sete Quedas foot bridge collapsed at Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, 17 January 1982 14 Cave Creek disaster A scenic Viewing Platform in Paparoa National Park, on the West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand collapses. 28 April 1995 14 I-40 bridge disaster collapse, (Webbers Falls, Oklahoma, 2002) 13 I-35W Mississippi River bridge collapse, (Minneapolis, Minnesota, 2007) 11 Petrobras 36 Oil Platform explosions (Brazil, 2001) 3 Turia disco lights collapse (Roppongi, Tokyo, Japan; 5 January 1988) Deaths Incident 2000+ Church of the Company Fire (Santiago, Chile, 8 December 1863) 1995 Theater fire (Kamli, Japan, 1893) 1670 Theater fire (Canton, China, 25 May 1845) 900 Theater fire (Shanghai, China, June 1871) 800 Lehman Theater fire (St. Petersburg, Russia, 1836) 667 Cinema fire (Xinjiang, China, 1977) 658 Antoung Movie Theater fire (China, 13 February 1937) 602 Iroquois Theater Fire (Chicago, Illinois, 30 December 1903) 600 Theater fire (Tientsin, China, 20 May 1872) 538 Dayananda Anglo Vedic private school fire (Mandi Dabwali, India, 23 December 1995) 530 Kanungu church fire (Kanungu, Uganda, 17 March 2000) 500 Gran Circus Norte-Americano – Niterói circus fire (Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 17 December 1961) 492 Cocoanut Grove fire (Boston, Massachusetts, 28 November 1942) 448 Ringtheater Fire (Vienna, Austria-Hungary, 8 December 1881) 430 Circus Ferroni fire (Berdichev, Russia, 13 January 1883) 422 Cinema Rex fire (Abadan, Iran, 20 August 1978) 400 Coliseo theater fire (Saragossa, Spain, 17 December 1778) 396 Paraguay supermarket fire (Asunción, Paraguay, 1 August 2004) 360 Comayagua prison fire (Comayagua, Honduras, 14 February 2012) 324 1994 Karamay fire (Karamay, China, 10 December 1994) 322 Ohio Penitentiary fire (Columbus, Ohio, United States, 21 April 1930) 322 L'Innovation Department Store Fire (Brussels, Belgium, 1967) 309 Dongdu Commercial shopping center fire (Luoyang, China, 25 December 2000) 278+ Brooklyn Theater Fire (Brooklyn, United States, 5 December 1876) 250 Flores Theater fire (Acapulco, Mexico, 15 February 1909) 242 Kiss nightclub fire in Santa Maria (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 27 January 2013) 225 Mental hospital fire (Guatemala City, Guatemala, 14 July 1960) 209 Rhythm Night Club fire (Natchez, Mississippi, 23 April 1940) 208 Hoteiza theater fire (Kucchan, Japan, 6 March 1943) 200 Carslruhe theater fire (St. Petersburg, Russia, 1847) 200 Banquet theater fire (Porto, Portugal, 21 March 1888) 198 Daegu subway fire (Daegu, South Korea, 2003) 194 República Cromagnon nightclub fire (Buenos Aires, Argentina, 30 December 2004) 188 Joelma Building fire (São Paulo, Brazil, 1 February 1974) 188 Kader Toy Factory fire (Nakhon Pathom, Thailand, 10 May 1993) 186 Theatre Royal, Exeter, England, 5 September 1887 175 Collinwood school fire (Collinwood, Ohio, United States, 4 March 1908) 171 Rhoads Opera House Fire (Boyertown, Pennsylvania, 1908) 168 Hartford circus fire, (Hartford, Connecticut, 6 July 1944) 167 Piper Alpha oil platform explosions (North Sea, 1988) 165 Beverly Hills Supper Club fire (Southgate, Kentucky, 28 May 1977) 163 Cinema fire (Amude, Syria, 13 November 1960) 162 1971 Seoul hotel fire (South Korea) 162 Ozone Disco Club fire (Quezon City, Philippines, 1996) 153 Perm Lame Horse club fire, (Perm, Russia, 4 December 2009) 146 1970 Saint-Laurent-du-Pont fire (France) 146 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, (New York City, 1911) 144 1930 Costești wooden church fire[100] 139 Wing On godown fire, Sai Wan, Hong Kong, 139 killed[101][102] 130 Cinema fire in Kirin, China, 18 March 1930[103] 124 2010 Nimtoli Fire, Nimtoli, Old Dhaka, 3 June 2010[104] 124 2012 Dhaka fire, Tazreen Fashion factory (Dhaka, Bangladesh, 24 November 2012)[105] 119 Winecoff Hotel fire, (Downtown Atlanta, Georgia, 7 December 1946) 118 Sennichi department store fire, (Osaka, Japan, 13 May 1972) 109 1961 Elbarusovo school fire (Elbarusovo, Soviet Union, 5 November 1961) 108 Fire at San Pedro Sula's prison (San Pedro Sula, Honduras, 17 May 2004) 104 Cinema fire at the Chinkai Guard District, 10 March 1930[106] 104 Taiyo department store fire, (Kumamoto, Japan, 29 November 1973) 100 The Station nightclub fire, (West Warwick, Rhode Island, 2003) 99 Seibo-no-Sono nursery home fire, (Yokohama, Japan, 17 February 1955) 97 Dupont Plaza Hotel arson, (San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1986) 95 Our Lady of the Angels School Fire, (Chicago, Illinois, 1 December 1958) 94 2004 Kumbakonam School fire, Kumbakonam, India 16 July 2004 89 AMRI hospital fire, India, 9 December 2011 87 Happyland Fire, (Bronx, New York City, 1990) 87 MGM Grand fire, (Paradise, Nevada, 21 November 1980) 82 Alcalá 20 nightclub fire, (Madrid, Spain, 17 December 1983) 80–88 Karlslust dance hall fire, (Berlin, Germany, 8 February 1947) 78 Laurier Palace Theatre fire, (Montreal, Canada, 9 January 1927) 77 Cleveland school fire, (Camden, South Carolina, 16 May 1923) 64 Restaurant fire in Taichung City, Taiwan, R.O.C., (15 February 1995) 64 Cinema Statuto fire, (Turin,Italy, 13 February 1983) 63 Gothenburg nightclub fire in (Gothenburg, Sweden, 1998) 61 La Salle Hotel fire, Chicago, Illinois, 5 June 1946 59 (to 61) Santika 2009 Bangkok nightclub fire (Bangkok, Thailand, 1 January 2009)[107] 59 Uphaar Cinema fire, India on Friday, 13 June 1997 56 Bradford City Football Club stadium fire, Bradford, West Yorkshire, 11 May 1985 50 Summerland entertainment complex fire, Douglas, Isle of Man, 2 August 1973 49 2009 Hermosillo daycare center fire, (Hermosillo, Mexico, 5 June 2009) 48 Stardust fire, (Artane, Dublin, Ireland, 14 February 1981) 44 Myojo 56 building fire, (Tokyo, Japan, 1 September 2001) 42 Dromcolliher Cinema Fire, (County Limerick, Ireland, 5 September 1926) 41 Ballantynes Fire, Christchurch, New Zealand, 18 November 1947 40 The Garley Building fire, (Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong, 20 November 1996) 38 Seacliff Lunatic Asylum Fire. near Dunedin, New Zealand, 8 December 1942 37 Blue Bird Café fire, Montreal, Canada, 1 September 1970 37 Karen refugee camp fire (Mae Hong Son, Thailand, 22 March 2013) 35 Hotel Hafnia Fire after an arson fire on the hotel, in Copenhagen, Denmark, 1 September 1973 34 Under construction Jumbo Kingdom industrial fire in Aberdeen Harbour, Hong Kong, killing up to 34 workers on 30 October 1971[108][109] 33 Hotel Polen fire, possibly after a burglary below the hotel, in Amsterdam, Netherlands, 9 May 1977 33 Hotel New Japan Fire, (Tokyo, Japan, 8 February 1982) 31 King's Cross Fire underground Tube Train station fire, London UK. 18 November 1987 30 William Booth Memorial Home fire - Australia's deadliest building fire. Salvation Army home for destitute men.[110] 29 Pioneer Hotel fire, after an arson fire on the hotel in Tucson, Arizona (20 December 1970)[111] 29 Utopia nightclub fire (Lima, Peru, 20 July 2002)[112][ 24 Gulliver's nightclub fire (Port Chester, New York, United States, 30 June 1974) 24 2009 Nakumatt supermarket fire, Nairobi, Kenya, January 2009 22 Lobohombo, Mexico City, Mexico, 20 October 2000[113] 21 Hostel for homeless fire, Kamień Pomorski, Poland, 13 April 2009 21 Andorinha Building fire (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 17 February 1986) 21 St. Johns School Fire, Peabody, Massachusetts, 28 October 1915 20 Hotel fire, Borås, Sweden, 10 June 1978[114] 19 Calderón Guardia Hospital fire, San José, Costa Rica, 12 July 2005 19 Dorothy Mae Apartment arson fire, Los Angeles, California, 4 September 1982[115] 19 Knitting factory fire in Hong Kong, spread to apartment above the factory, on 1968[116] 17 A cinefilm fire in an elementary school in Kilingi-Nõmme, Estonia, on 20 April 1937 17 Top One Karaoke Fire (fire after an arson attack in Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon, Hong Kong, 25 January 1997)[117] Rail accidents and incidents with 90+ deaths: Deaths Incident 800–1000 Saint-Michel-de-Maurienne derailment (France, 1917) 600–1000 Ciurea rail disaster (Romania, 1917) 500–800 Bihar train disaster (Bihar, India, 1981)[118] 600+ Guadalajara train disaster (Mexico, 1915)[119] 575 Ufa train disaster (Soviet Union, 1989) 521–600+ Balvano train disaster (Italy, 1944) 200–500+ Torre del Bierzo rail disaster (Spain, 1944) 428 Awash rail disaster (Awash, Afar, Ethiopia, 1985) 383 Al Ayatt train disaster (Egypt, 2002) 358 Firozabad rail disaster (India, 1995) 320 Nishapur train disaster (Iran, 2004) 307 Sukkur rail disaster (Sindh, Pakistan, 1990) 300 Montemorelos, (Mexico, 1915)[120] 300 Tolunda (Angola, 1994)[121] 289 Baku Metro fire (Azerbaijan, 1995) 285 Gaisal train disaster (India, 1999) 281 Igandu train disaster (Tanzania, 2002) 278 Genthin train disaster (Genthin, Germany, 22 December 1939) 250 Montgomery oil train disaster, (Pakistan, 1957)[122] 248 El Virilla train accident, (Costa Rica, 14 March 1926)[123] 230 Lagny-Pomponne Railroad Disaster, (France, 1933) 226 Quintinshill rail crash (Scotland, 1915) 226 Estrella del Norte (Argentina, 1978) 212 Khanna rail disaster (India, 1998) 208 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico, 1972) 200 Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki train disaster (Poland, 1949). Not confirmed by any official source, cf. Katastrofy kolejowe w Polsce (Polish) 192 Muamba rail disaster (Mozambique, 2002) 185 Aracaju train crash, (Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil, 20 March 1946) 184 Komagawa train disaster (Komagawa, Saitama, Japan, 1947) 181 Ajikawaguchi train disaster (Osaka, Japan, 1940) 162 Mikawashima train crash (Tokyo, Japan, 1962) 161 Tsurumi rail accident (Japan, 1963) 156 Bintaro train crash killing at least 156 people, injuring at least 300. Indonesia's worst rail accident in history. (Indonesia, 1987) 155 Kaprun disaster (Austria, 2000) 154 Ryongchon disaster (North Korea, 2004) 154 Mardaiyar river bridge derail disaster, (Tamil-Nadu, India, 1956) 153 Zagreb express train crash (Croatia, then Yugoslavia 1974) 151 Tangiwai train disaster (New Zealand, 1953) 150 1965 Durban commuter train disaster, (KwaZulu Natal, South Africa, 1965) 148 Gyaneshwari Express train derailment, (India, 2010) 142–236 Benavidez rail disaster (Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1970)[124] 100–140 Pontecagnano train disaster, Pontecagnano, Italy,1944 135 Maizdi Khan trains disaster (Bangladesh, 1989) 132 Ghotki rail crash (Sindh, Pakistan, 2005) 131 Bouhalouane train crash, (Algeria, 1982) 130 Rafiganj train disaster (India, 2002) 130 Liziyida bridge destroyed by mud-flow, caused a train disaster. (Sichuan, China, 9 July 1981) 130 Barwald Sredni trains disaster, (Poland, 1944) 128 Mirshah trains disaster, (Punjab, Pakistan, 1997) 128 Mangueira train disaster, (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1958) 126 Rongjiawan trains disaster, (Hunan, China, 1997) 120 Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh (India, 1997) 120 Yaoundé train explosion (Cameroon, 1998) 119 Anchieta rail disaster (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1952) 118 Stéblová train disaster (Czechoslovakia, 1960) 118 Moimenta-Alcafache train crash, (Portugal, 1985) 114 Veligonda train disaster (India, 2005) 114 Ngai Ndethya (Kenya, 1993) 112 Harrow and Wealdstone rail crash (England, 1952) 112 San Rafael River train disaster (Mexico, 1989) 112 Nebukawa, derailment caused by Great Kanto Earthquake, (Japan, 1923)[125] 110 Tsuchiura triple trains crash (Tsuchiura, Japan, 1943) 108 Tangua train disaster, (Brazil, 1950) 107 Patna train derailed, (Bihar, India, 1937) 107 Vierzy tunnel trains derailed, (Aisne, France, 1972) 107 Amagasaki rail crash (Japan, 2005) 107 Ashtamudi Lake train disaster, (Kerala, India, 1988) 106 Sakuragichō train fire commuter train fire (Yokohama, Japan, 1951) 106 Kamensk-Shakhtinsky rail disaster (Russia, 1987) 106 Yangzhuang station trains disaster, (Henan, China, 1978) 105 Tama river trains disaster, (Hachioji, Japan, 1945) 103 Šakvice train disaster, (Czechoslovakia, 1953) 93–102 Malbone Street Wreck, (Brooklyn, NY, 1918) 102 Aßling train disaster, (Aßling, Germany, 16 July 1945) 102 Wuntho train disaster, (Myanmar, 1994) 101 Markdorf train disaster, (Markdorf, Germany, 22 December 1939) 101 Eschede train disaster (Germany, 1998) 101 The Great Train Wreck of 1918 (Nashville, Tennessee, United States, 1918) 100 Col des Nuages (Pass of the Clouds) derailment, (East Indochina (Vietnam), 24 June 1953) 100 Benaleka train crash, (Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2007) 99 St-Hilaire train disaster, (Mont-Saint-Hilaire, Quebec, Canada, 29 June 1864) 97 Eden train wreck, (Colorado, United States, 1904) 96 Great Wellington train disaster, (Sky Valley Washington, United States, 1 March 1910) 93 Harmelen train disaster, (Netherlands, 1962) 92 Ashtabula River Railroad Disaster, (Ashtabula, Ohio, 1876) 91 Lewisham rail crash, (Lewisham, England, 1957) List of battles and other violent events by death toll List of Canadian disasters by death toll List of disasters in Australia by death toll List of disasters of the United Kingdom and preceding states List of natural disasters by death toll List of New Zealand disasters by death toll List of Poland disasters by death toll List of United States disasters by death toll List of volcanic eruptions by death toll List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll

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Thomas Paine (February 9, 1737 [O.S. January 29, 1736][Note 1][Note 2][Note 3] – June 8, 1809) was an English-American political activist, philosopher, political theorist and revolutionary. One of the Founding Fathers of the United States, he authored the two most influential pamphlets at the start of the American Revolution, and he inspired the rebels in 1776 to declare independence from Britain. His ideas reflected Enlightenment-era rhetoric of transnational human rights. He has been called "a corsetmaker by trade, a journalist by profession, and a propagandist by inclination". Born in Thetford, England, in the county of Norfolk, Paine emigrated to the British American colonies in 1774 with the help of Benjamin Franklin, arriving just in time to participate in the American Revolution. Virtually every rebel read (or listened to a reading of) his powerful pamphlet Common Sense (1776), proportionally the all-time best-selling American title which crystallized the rebellious demand for independence from Great Britain. His The American Crisis (1776–83) was a prorevolutionary pamphlet series. Common Sense was so influential that John Adams said, "Without the pen of the author of Common Sense, the sword of Washington would have been raised in vain." Paine lived in France for most of the 1790s, becoming deeply involved in the French Revolution. He wrote Rights of Man (1791), in part a defense of the French Revolution against its critics. His attacks on British writer Edmund Burke led to a trial and conviction in absentia in 1792 for the crime of seditious libel. In 1792, despite not being able to speak French, he was elected to the French National Convention. The Girondists regarded him as an ally. Consequently, the Montagnards, especially Robespierre, regarded him as an enemy. In December 1793, he was arrested and imprisoned in Paris, then released in 1794. He became notorious because of his pamphlet The Age of Reason (1793–94), in which he advocated deism, promoted reason and free thought, and argued against institutionalized religion in general and Christian doctrine in particular. He also published the pamphlet Agrarian Justice (1797), discussing the origins of property, and introduced the concept of a guaranteed minimum income. In 1802, he returned to the U.S. where he died on June 8, 1809. Only six people attended his funeral as he had been ostracized for his ridicule of Christianity. Paine was born on January 29, 1736[Note 1] (NS February 9, 1737), the son of Joseph Pain, or Paine, a Quaker, and Frances (née Cocke), an Anglican, in Thetford, an important market town and coach stage-post, in rural Norfolk, England. Born Thomas Pain, despite claims that he changed his family name upon his emigration to America in 1774, he was using Paine in 1769, while still in Lewes, Sussex. He attended Thetford Grammar School (1744–49), at a time when there was no compulsory education. At the age of 13, he was apprenticed to his stay-maker father. Paine researchers contend his father's occupation has been widely misinterpreted to mean that he made the stays in ladies' corsets, which likely was an insult later invented by his political foes.[Actually, the father and apprentice son made the thick rope stays (also called stay ropes) used on sailing ships.[Thetford historically had maintained a brisk trade with the downriver, then major, port town of King's Lynn.[ A connection to shipping and the sea explains why, in late adolescence, Thomas enlisted and briefly served as a privateer,[before returning to Britain in 1759. There, he became a master stay-maker, establishing a shop in Sandwich, Kent. On September 27, 1759, Thomas Paine married Mary Lambert. His business collapsed soon after. Mary became pregnant; and, after they moved to Margate, she went into early labor, in which she and their child died. In July 1761, Paine returned to Thetford to work as a supernumerary officer. In December 1762, he became an Excise Officer in Grantham, Lincolnshire; in August 1764, he was transferred to Alford, also in Lincolnshire, at a salary of £50 per annum. On August 27, 1765, he was dismissed as an Excise Officer for "claiming to have inspected goods he did not inspect". On July 31, 1766, he requested his reinstatement from the Board of Excise, which they granted the next day, upon vacancy. While awaiting that, he worked as a stay-maker. Again, he was making stay ropes for shipping, not stays for corsets. In 1767, he was appointed to a position in Grampound, Cornwall; subsequently, he asked to leave this post to await a vacancy, thus, he became a schoolteacher in London. On February 19, 1768, he was appointed to Lewes in Sussex, a town with a tradition of opposition to the monarchy and pro-republican sentiments going back to the revolutionary decades of the 17th century. Here he lived above the fifteenth-century Bull House, the tobacco shop of Samuel Ollive and Esther Ollive. There, Paine first became involved in civic matters, and he appears in the Town Book as a member of the Court Leet, the governing body for the town. He was also a member of the parish vestry, an influential local church group whose responsibilities for parish business would include collecting taxes and tithes to distribute among the poor. On March 26, 1771, at the age of 34, he married Elizabeth Ollive, his landlord's daughter. From 1772 to 1773, Paine joined excise officers asking Parliament for better pay and working conditions, publishing, in summer of 1772, The Case of the Officers of Excise, a twenty-one-page article, and his first political work, spending the London winter distributing the 4,000 copies printed to the Parliament and others. In spring of 1774, he was again dismissed from the excise service for being absent from his post without permission; his tobacco shop failed, too. On April 14, to avoid debtors' prison, he sold his household possessions to pay debts. On June 4, 1774, he formally separated from his wife Elizabeth and moved to London, where, in September, mathematician, Fellow of the Royal Society, and Commissioner of the Excise George Lewis Scott introduced him to Benjamin Franklin, who suggested emigration to British colonial America, and gave him a letter of recommendation. In October, Thomas Paine emigrated from Great Britain to the American colonies, arriving in Philadelphia on November 30, 1774. He barely survived the transatlantic voyage. The ship's water supplies were bad, and typhoid fever killed five passengers. On arriving at Philadelphia, he was too sick to debark. Benjamin Franklin's physician, there to welcome Paine to America, had him carried off ship; Paine took six weeks to recover his health. He became a citizen of Pennsylvania "by taking the oath of allegiance at a very early period". In January 1775, he became editor of the Pennsylvania Magazine, a position he conducted with considerable ability. Paine designed the Sunderland Bridge of 1796 over the Wear River at Wearmouth, England. It was patterned after the model he had made for the Schuylkill River Bridge at Philadelphia in 1787, and the Sunderland arch became the prototype for many subsequent voussoir arches made in iron and steel. He also received a British patent for a single-span iron bridge, developed a smokeless candle, and worked with inventor John Fitch in developing steam engines. Thomas Paine has a claim to the title The Father of the American Revolution It rests on his pamphlets, especially Common Sense, which crystallized sentiment for independence in 1776. It was published in Philadelphia on January 10, 1776 and signed anonymously "by an Englishman." It became an immediate success, quickly spreading 100,000 copies in three months to the two million residents of the 13 colonies. In all about 500,000 copies total including unauthorized editions were sold during the course of the Revolution. Paine's original title for the pamphlet was Plain Truth; Paine's friend, pro-independence advocate Benjamin Rush, suggested Common Sense instead. The pamphlet came into circulation in January 1776, after the Revolution had started. It was passed around, and often read aloud in taverns, contributing significantly to spreading the idea of republicanism, bolstering enthusiasm for separation from Britain, and encouraging recruitment for the Continental Army. Paine provided a new and convincing argument for independence by advocating a complete break with history. Common Sense is oriented to the future in a way that compels the reader to make an immediate choice. It offers a solution for Americans disgusted with and alarmed at the threat of tyranny. Paine's attack on monarchy in Common Sense is essentially an attack on George III. Whereas colonial resentments were originally directed primarily against the king's ministers and Parliament, Paine laid the responsibility firmly at the king's door. Common Sense was the most widely read pamphlet of the American Revolution. It was a clarion call for unity against the corrupt British court, so as to realize America's providential role in providing an asylum for liberty. Written in a direct and lively style, it denounced the decaying despotisms of Europe and pilloried hereditary monarchy as an absurdity. At a time when many still hoped for reconciliation with Britain, Common Sense demonstrated to many the inevitability of separation. Paine was not, on the whole, expressing original ideas in Common Sense, but rather employing rhetoric as a means to arouse resentment of the Crown. To achieve these ends, he pioneered a style of political writing suited to the democratic society he envisioned, with Common Sense serving as a primary example. Part of Paine's work was to render complex ideas intelligible to average readers of the day, with clear, concise writing unlike the formal, learned style favored by many of Paine's contemporaries. Scholars have put forward various explanations to account for its success, including the historic moment, Paine's easy-to-understand style, his democratic ethos, and his use of psychology and ideology. Common Sense was immensely popular in disseminating to a very wide audience ideas that were already in common use among the elite who comprised Congress and the leadership cadre of the emerging nation, who rarely cited Paine's arguments in their public calls for independence. The pamphlet probably had little direct influence on the Continental Congress's decision to issue a Declaration of Independence, since that body was more concerned with how declaring independence would affect the war effort. Paine's great contribution was in initiating a public debate about independence which had previously been rather muted. One distinctive idea in Common Sense is Paine's beliefs regarding the peaceful nature of republics; his views were an early and strong conception of what scholars would come to call the democratic peace theory. Loyalists vigorously attacked Common Sense; one attack, titled Plain Truth (1776), by Marylander James Chalmers, said Paine was a political quack and warned that without monarchy, the government would "degenerate into democracy". Even some American revolutionaries objected to Common Sense; late in life John Adams called it a "crapulous mass". Adams disagreed with the type of radical democracy promoted by Paine (that men who did not own property should still be allowed to vote and hold public office), and published Thoughts on Government in 1776 to advocate a more conservative approach to republicanism. Sophia Rosenfeld argues that Paine was highly innovative in his use of the commonplace notion of "common sense". He synthesized various philosophical and political uses of the term in a way that permanently impacted American political thought. He used two ideas from Scottish Common Sense Realism: that ordinary people can indeed make sound judgments on major political issues, and that there exists a body of popular wisdom that is readily apparent to anyone. Paine also used a notion of "common sense" favored by philosophes in the Continental Enlightenment. They held that common sense could refute the claims of traditional institutions. Thus, Paine used "common sense" as a weapon to delegitimize the monarchy and overturn prevailing conventional wisdom. Rosenfeld concludes that the phenomenal appeal of his pamphlet resulted from his synthesis of popular and elite elements in the independence movement. According to historian Robert Middlekauff, Common Sense became immensely popular mainly because Paine appealed to widespread convictions. Monarchy, he said, was preposterous, and it had a heathenish origin. It was an institution of the devil. Paine pointed to the Old Testament, where almost all kings had seduced the Israelites to worship idols instead of God. Paine also denounced aristocracy, which together with monarchy were "two ancient tyrannies". They violated the laws of nature, human reason, and the "universal order of things", which began with God. That was, Middlekauff says, exactly what most Americans wanted to hear. He calls the Revolutionary generation "the children of the twice-born", because in their childhood they had experienced the Great Awakening, which, for the first time, had tied Americans together, transcending denominational and ethnic boundaries and giving them a sense of patriotism. In late 1776, Paine published The American Crisis pamphlet series to inspire the Americans in their battles against the British army. He juxtaposed the conflict between the good American devoted to civic virtue and the selfish provincial man. To inspire his soldiers, General George Washington had The American Crisis, first Crisis pamphlet, read aloud to them. It begins: In 1777, Paine became secretary of the Congressional Committee on Foreign Affairs. The following year, he alluded to secret negotiation underway with France in his pamphlets. His enemies denounced his indiscretions. There was scandal; together with Paine's conflict with Robert Morris it led to Paine's expulsion from the Committee in 1779. However, in 1781, he accompanied John Laurens on his mission to France. Eventually, after much pleading from Paine, New York State recognized his political services by presenting him with an estate, at New Rochelle, New York, and Paine received money from Pennsylvania and from Congress at Washington's suggestion. During the Revolutionary War, Paine served as an aide to the important general, Nathanael Greene. Paine accompanied Col. John Laurens to France and is credited with initiating the mission. It landed in France in March 1781 and returned to America in August with 2.5 million livres in silver, as part of a "present" of 6 million and a loan of 10 million. The meetings with the French king were most likely conducted in the company and under the influence of Benjamin Franklin. Upon returning to the United States with this highly welcomed cargo, Thomas Paine and probably Col. Laurens, "positively objected" that General Washington should propose that Congress remunerate him for his services, for fear of setting "a bad precedent and an improper mode". Paine made influential acquaintances in Paris, and helped organize the Bank of North America to raise money to supply the army. In 1785, he was given $3,000 by the U.S. Congress in recognition of his service to the nation. Henry Laurens (the father of Col. John Laurens) had been the ambassador to the Netherlands, but he was captured by the British on his return trip there. When he was later exchanged for the prisoner Lord Cornwallis (in late 1781), Paine proceeded to the Netherlands to continue the loan negotiations. There remains some question as to the relationship of Henry Laurens and Thomas Paine to Robert Morris as the Superintendent of Finance and his business associate Thomas Willing who became the first president of the Bank of North America (in Jan. 1782). They had accused Morris of profiteering in 1779 and Willing had voted against the Declaration of Independence. Although Morris did much to restore his reputation in 1780 and 1781, the credit for obtaining these critical loans to "organize" the Bank of North America for approval by Congress in December 1781 should go to Henry or John Laurens and Thomas Paine more than to Robert Morris.[ Paine bought his only house in 1783 on the corner of Farnsworth Avenue and Church Streets in Bordentown City, New Jersey, and he lived in it periodically until his death in 1809. This is the only place in the world where Paine purchased real estate.[His design for a single-arch iron bridge led him back to Europe after the Revolution, where he tried, unsuccessfully, to find backers for his plans. Back in London by 1787, Paine became engrossed in the ongoing French Revolution that began in 1789. He visited France in 1790. Meanwhile, conservative intellectual Edmund Burke launched a counterrevolutionary blast against the French Revolution, entitled Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790); it strongly appealed to the landed class and sold 30,000 copies. Paine set out to refute it in his Rights of Man (1791). He wrote it not as a quick pamphlet but as a long, abstract political tract of 90,000 words that tore apart monarchies and traditional social institutions. On January 31, he gave the manuscript to publisher Joseph Johnson. A visit by government agents dissuaded Johnson, so Paine gave the book to publisher J.S. Jordan, then went to Paris, per William Blake's advice. He charged three good friends, William Godwin, Thomas Brand Hollis, and Thomas Holcroft, with handling publication details. The book appeared on March 13 and sold nearly a million copies. It was, "eagerly read by reformers, Protestant dissenters, democrats, London craftsman, and the skilled factory-hands of the new industrial north." Undeterred by the government campaign to discredit him, Paine issued his Rights of Man, Part the Second, Combining Principle and Practice in February 1792. It detailed a representative government with enumerated social programs to remedy the numbing poverty of commoners through progressive tax measures. Radically reduced in price to ensure unprecedented circulation, it was sensational in its impact and gave birth to reform societies. An indictment for seditious libel followed, for both publisher and author, while government agents followed Paine and instigated mobs, hate meetings, and burnings in effigy. A fierce pamphlet war also resulted, in which Paine was defended and assailed in dozens of works. The authorities aimed, with ultimate success, to chase Paine out of Great Britain. He was then tried in absentia and found guilty though never executed. In summer of 1792, he answered the sedition and libel charges thus: "If, to expose the fraud and imposition of monarchy ... to promote universal peace, civilization, and commerce, and to break the chains of political superstition, and raise degraded man to his proper rank; if these things be libellous ... let the name of libeller be engraved on my tomb." Paine was an enthusiastic supporter of the French Revolution, and was granted, along with Alexander Hamilton, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin and others, honorary French citizenship. Despite his inability to speak French, he was elected to the National Convention, representing the district of Pas-de-Calais. He voted for the French Republic; but argued against the execution of Louis XVI, saying that he should instead be exiled to the United States: firstly, because of the way royalist France had come to the aid of the American Revolution; and secondly because of a moral objection to capital punishment in general and to revenge killings in particular. He participated in the Constitution Committee that drafted the Girondin constitutional project. Regarded as an ally of the Girondins, he was seen with increasing disfavor by the Montagnards who were now in power, and in particular by Robespierre. A decree was passed at the end of 1793 excluding foreigners from their places in the Convention (Anacharsis Cloots was also deprived of his place). Paine was arrested and imprisoned in December 1793. Thomas Paine wrote the second part of Rights of Man on a desk in Thomas 'Clio' Rickman's house, with whom he was staying in 1792 before he fled to France. This desk is currently on display in the People's History Museum in Manchester. Arrested in France, Paine protested and claimed that he was a citizen of America, which was an ally of Revolutionary France, rather than of Great Britain, which was by that time at war with France. However, Gouverneur Morris, the American minister to France, did not press his claim, and Paine later wrote that Morris had connived at his imprisonment. Paine narrowly escaped execution. A chalk mark, supposed to be left by the gaoler to denote that the prisoner in this cell was to be collected for execution, was left on the inside of his door, rather than the outside, as the door happened to be open as the gaoler made his rounds, because Paine was receiving official visitors. But for this quirk of fate, he would have died the following morning. He kept his head and survived the few vital days needed to be spared by the fall of Robespierre on 9 Thermidor (July 27, 1794). Paine was released in November 1794 largely because of the work of the new American Minister to France, James Monroe, who successfully argued the case for Paine's American citizenship. In July 1795, he was re-admitted into the Convention, as were other surviving Girondins. Paine was one of only three députés to oppose the adoption of the new 1795 constitution, because it eliminated universal suffrage, which had been proclaimed by the Montagnard Constitution of 1793. In 1797, Tom Paine lived in Paris with Nicholas Bonneville and his wife. Paine, as well as Bonneville's other controversial guests, aroused the suspicions of authorities. Bonneville hid the Royalist Antoine Joseph Barruel-Beauvert at his home. Beauvert had been outlawed following the coup of 18 Fructidor on September 4, 1797. Paine believed that America, under President John Adams, had betrayed revolutionary France. Bonneville was then briefly jailed and his presses were confiscated, which meant financial ruin. In 1800, still under police surveillance, Bonneville took refuge with his father in Evreux. Paine stayed on with him, helping Bonneville with the burden of translating the "Covenant Sea". The same year, Paine purportedly had a meeting with Napoleon. Napoleon claimed he slept with a copy of Rights of Man under his pillow and went so far as to say to Paine that "a statue of gold should be erected to you in every city in the universe." Paine discussed with Napoleon how best to invade England and in December 1797 wrote two essays, one of which was pointedly named Observations on the Construction and Operation of Navies with a Plan for an Invasion of England and the Final Overthrow of the English Government, in which he promoted the idea to finance 1,000 gunboats to carry a French invading army across the English Channel. In 1804 Paine returned to the subject, writing To the People of England on the Invasion of England advocating the idea. On noting Napoleon's progress towards dictatorship, he condemned him as: "the completest charlatan that ever existed". Paine remained in France until 1802, returning to the United States only at President Jefferson's invitation. Paine believed that U.S. President George Washington had conspired with Robespierre to imprison him. Embittered by this perceived betrayal, Paine tried to ruin Washington's reputation by calling him a treacherous man unworthy of his fame as a military and political hero. Paine described Washington as an incompetent commander and a vain and ungrateful person. In a scathing open letter to President Washington in 1796, he wrote: "the world will be puzzled to decide whether you are an apostate or an impostor; whether you have abandoned good principles or whether you ever had any." In 1802 or 1803, Paine left France for the United States, paying passage also for Bonneville's wife, Marguerite Brazier and their three sons, seven-year-old Benjamin, Louis, and Thomas, to whom Paine was godfather. Paine returned to the United States in the early stages of the Second Great Awakening and a time of great political partisanship. The Age of Reason gave ample excuse for the religiously devout to dislike him, and the Federalists attacked him for his ideas of government stated in Common Sense, for his association with the French Revolution, and for his friendship with President Jefferson. Also still fresh in the minds of the public was his Letter to Washington, published six years before his return. This was compounded when his right to vote was denied in New Rochelle on the grounds that Gouverneur Morris did not recognize him as an American, and Washington had not aided him. Brazier took care of Paine at the end of his life and buried him after his death on June 8, 1809. In his will, Paine left the bulk of his estate to Marguerite, including 100 acres (40.5 ha) of his farm so she could maintain and educate Benjamin and his brother Thomas. In 1814, the fall of Napoleon finally allowed Bonneville to rejoin his wife in the United States where he remained for four years before returning to Paris to open a bookshop. Paine died at the age of 72, at 59 Grove Street in Greenwich Village, New York City, on the morning of June 8, 1809. Although the original building is no longer there, the present building has a plaque noting that Paine died at this location. After his death, Paine's body was brought to New Rochelle, but the Quakers would not allow it to be buried in their grave-yard as per his last will, so his remains were buried under a walnut tree on his farm. In 1819, the English agrarian radical journalist William Cobbett, who in 1793 had published a hostile continuation of Francis Oldys (George Chalmer)'s The Life of Thomas Paine, dug up his bones and transported them back to England with the intention to give Paine a heroic reburial on his native soil, but this never came to pass. The bones were still among Cobbett's effects when he died over twenty years later, but were later lost. There is no confirmed story about what happened to them after that, although various people have claimed throughout the years to own parts of Paine's remains, such as his skull and right hand. At the time of his death, most American newspapers reprinted the obituary notice from the New York Evening Post, which read in part: "He had lived long, did some good, and much harm." Only six mourners came to his funeral, two of whom were black, most likely freedmen. The writer and orator Robert G. Ingersoll wrote: Biographer Eric Foner identifies a utopian thread in Paine's thought, writing that "Through this new language he communicated a new vision—a utopian image of an egalitarian, republican society." Paine's utopianism combined civic republicanism, belief in the inevitability of scientific and social progress and commitment to free markets and liberty generally. The multiple sources of Paine's political theory all pointed to a society based on the common good and individualism. Paine expressed a redemptive futurism or political messianism. Paine, writing that his generation "would appear to the future as the Adam of a new world", exemplified British utopianism. Thomas Paine's natural justice beliefs may have been influenced by his Quaker father. Later, his encounters with the Indigenous peoples of the Americas made a deep impression. The ability of the Iroquois to live in harmony with nature while achieving a democratic decision-making process helped him refine his thinking on how to organize society. Paine is sometimes credited with writing "African Slavery in America", the first article proposing the emancipation of African slaves and the abolition of slavery. It was published on March 8, 1775, in the Postscript to the Pennsylvania Journal and Weekly Advertiser (aka The Pennsylvania Magazine and American Museum). Citing a lack of evidence that Paine was the author of this anonymously published essay, some scholars (Eric Foner and Alfred Owen Aldridge) no longer consider this one of his works. By contrast, John Nichols speculates that his "fervent objections to slavery" led to his exclusion from power during the early years of the Republic. His last pamphlet, Agrarian Justice, published in the winter of 1795, further developed his ideas in the Rights of Man, about how land ownership separated the majority of people from their rightful, natural inheritance and means of independent survival. The US Social Security Administration recognizes Agrarian Justice as the first American proposal for an old-age pension and basic income; per Agrarian Justice: In advocating the case of the persons thus dispossessed, it is a right, and not a charity ... [Government must] create a national fund, out of which there shall be paid to every person, when arrived at the age of twenty-one years, the sum of fifteen pounds sterling, as a compensation in part, for the loss of his or her natural inheritance, by the introduction of the system of landed property. And also, the sum of ten pounds per annum, during life, to every person now living, of the age of fifty years, and to all others as they shall arrive at that age. Note that £10 and £15 would be worth about £800 and £1,200 ($1,200 and $2,000) when adjusted for inflation (2011 British Pounds Sterling). Lamb argues that Paine's analysis of property rights marks a distinct contribution to political theory. His theory of property defends a libertarian concern with private ownership that shows an egalitarian commitment. Paine's new justification of property sets him apart from previous theorists such as Hugo Grotius, Samuel von Pufendorf, and John Locke. It demonstrates Paine's commitment to foundational liberal values of individual freedom and moral equality. Before his arrest and imprisonment in France, knowing that he would probably be arrested and executed, Paine, following in the tradition of early eighteenth-century British deism, wrote the first part of The Age of Reason, an assault on organized "revealed" religion combining a compilation of the many inconsistencies he found in the Bible. About his own religious beliefs, Paine wrote in The Age of Reason: Though there is no evidence he was himself a Freemason, upon his return to America from France, Paine also penned "An Essay on the Origin of Free-Masonry" (1803–1805), about Freemasonry being derived from the religion of the ancient Druids. In the essay, he stated that "The Christian religion is a parody on the worship of the sun, in which they put a man called Christ in the place of the sun, and pay him the adoration originally paid to the sun." Marguerite de Bonneville published the essay in 1810, after Paine's death, but she chose to omit certain passages from it that were critical of Christianity, most of which were restored in an 1818 printing. While Paine never described himself as a deist, he did write the following: The opinions I have advanced ... are the effect of the most clear and long-established conviction that the Bible and the Testament are impositions upon the world, that the fall of man, the account of Jesus Christ being the Son of God, and of his dying to appease the wrath of God, and of salvation, by that strange means, are all fabulous inventions, dishonorable to the wisdom and power of the Almighty; that the only true religion is Deism, by which I then meant, and mean now, the belief of one God, and an imitation of his moral character, or the practice of what are called moral virtues – and that it was upon this only (so far as religion is concerned) that I rested all my hopes of happiness hereafter. So say I now – and so help me God. Paine's writing greatly influenced his contemporaries and, especially, the American revolutionaries. His books provoked an upsurge in Deism in America, but in the long term inspired philosophic and working-class radicals in the UK and US. Liberals, libertarians, feminists, democratic socialists, social democrats, anarchists, free thinkers, and progressives often claim him as an intellectual ancestor. Paine's critique of institutionalized religion and advocacy of rational thinking influenced many British free thinkers of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, such as William Cobbett, George Holyoake, Charles Bradlaugh, Christopher Hitchens and Bertrand Russell. The quote "Lead, follow, or get out of the way" is widely but incorrectly attributed to Paine. This can be found nowhere in his published works. In 2002, Paine was voted number 34 of "100 Greatest Britons" in a public poll conducted by the BBC. When Abraham Lincoln was 26 years old in 1835, he wrote a defense of Paine's deism; a political associate, Samuel Hill, burned it to save Lincoln's political career. Historian Roy Basler, the editor of Lincoln's papers, said Paine had a strong influence on Lincoln's style: No other writer of the eighteenth century, with the exception of Jefferson, parallels more closely the temper or gist of Lincoln's later thought. In style, Paine above all others affords the variety of eloquence which, chastened and adapted to Lincoln's own mood, is revealed in Lincoln's formal writings. The inventor Thomas Edison said: I have always regarded Paine as one of the greatest of all Americans. Never have we had a sounder intelligence in this republic ... It was my good fortune to encounter Thomas Paine's works in my boyhood ... it was, indeed, a revelation to me to read that great thinker's views on political and theological subjects. Paine educated me, then, about many matters of which I had never before thought. I remember, very vividly, the flash of enlightenment that shone from Paine's writings, and I recall thinking, at that time, 'What a pity these works are not today the schoolbooks for all children!' My interest in Paine was not satisfied by my first reading of his works. I went back to them time and again, just as I have done since my boyhood days. In 1811, Venezuelan translator Manuel Garcia de Sena published a book in Philadelphia which consisted mostly of Spanish translations of several of Paine's most important works. The book also included translations of the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, the U.S. Constitution, and the constitutions of five U.S. states. It subsequently circulated widely in South America, and through it, Uruguayan national hero José Gervasio Artigas became familiar with and embraced Paine's ideas. In turn, many of Artigas's writings drew directly from Paine's, including the Instructions of 1813, which Uruguayans consider to be one of their country's most important constitutional documents; it was one of the earliest writings to articulate a principled basis for an identity independent of Buenos Aires. The first and longest standing memorial to Thomas Paine is the carved and inscribed 12 foot marble column in New Rochelle, New York organized and funded by publisher, educator and reformer Gilbert Vale (1791–1866) and raised in 1839 by the American sculptor and architect John Frazee — The Thomas Paine Monument (see image below). New Rochelle is also the original site of Thomas Paine's Cottage, which, along with a 320-acre (130 ha) farm, were presented to Paine in 1784 by act of the New York State Legislature for his services in the American Revolution. The same site is the home of the Thomas Paine Memorial Museum. Thomas A. Edison helped to turn the first shovel of earth for the museum which serves as a museum to display both Paine relics as well as others of local historical interest. A large collection of books, pamphlets, and pictures is contained in the Paine library, including many first editions of Paine's works, as well as several original manuscripts. These holdings, the subject of a sell-off controversy, were temporarily relocated to the New-York Historical Society and have since been more permanently archived in the Iona College library nearby. Paine was originally buried near the current location of his house and monument upon his death in 1809. The site is marked by a small headstone and burial plaque even though his remains were said to have been removed to England years later. In the twentieth century, Joseph Lewis, longtime president of the Freethinkers of America and an ardent Paine admirer, was instrumental in having larger-than-life-sized statues of Paine erected in each of the three counties with which the revolutionary writer was associated. The first, created by Mount Rushmore sculptor Gutzon Borglum, was erected in Paris just before World War II began (but not formally dedicated until 1948). It depicts Paine standing before the French National Convention to plead for the life of King Louis XVI. The second, sculpted in 1950 by Georg J. Lober, was erected near Paine's one time home in Morristown, New Jersey. It shows a seated Paine using a drum-head as a makeshift table. The third, sculpted by Sir Charles Wheeler, President of the Royal Academy, was erected in 1964 in Paine's birthplace, Thetford, England. With quill pen in his right hand and an inverted copy of The Rights of Man in his left, it occupies a prominent spot on King Street. Thomas Paine was ranked #34 in the 100 Greatest Britons 2002 extensive Nationwide poll conducted by the BBC. A bronze plaque attached to the wall of Thetford's Tom Paine hotel gives details of Paine's life. It was placed there in 1943 by voluntary contributions from US airmen from a nearby bomber base. Texas folklorist and freethinker J. Frank Dobie, then teaching at Cambridge University, participated in the dedication ceremonies. Bronx Community College includes Paine in its Hall of Fame of Great Americans, and there are statues of Paine in Morristown and Bordentown, New Jersey, and in the Parc Montsouris, in Paris. In Paris, there is a plaque in the street where he lived from 1797 to 1802, that says: "Thomas PAINE / 1737–1809 / Englishman by birth / American by adoption / French by decree". Yearly, between July 4 and 14, the Lewes Town Council in the United Kingdom celebrates the life and work of Thomas Paine. In the early 1990s, largely through the efforts of citizen activist David Henley of Virginia, legislation (S.Con.Res 110, and H.R. 1628) was introduced in the 102nd Congress by ideological opposites Sen. Steve Symms (R-ID) and Rep. Nita Lowey (D-NY). With over 100 formal letters of endorsement by US and foreign historians, philosophers and organizations, including the Thomas Paine National Historical Society, the legislation garnered 78 original co-sponsors in the Senate and 230 original co-sponsors in the House of Representatives, and was consequently passed by both houses' unanimous consent. In October 1992 the legislation was signed into law (PL102-407 & PL102-459) by President George H. W. Bush authorizing the construction, using private funds, of a memorial to Thomas Paine in "Area 1" of the grounds of the US Capitol. As of January 2011[the memorial has not yet been built. The University of East Anglia's Norwich Business School is housed in the Thomas Paine Study Centre on its Norwich campus, in Paine's home county of Norfolk. The Cookes House is reputed to have been his home during the Second Continental Congress at York, Pennsylvania. The 1982 French-Italian film That Night in Varennes is about a fictional meeting of Casanova, Chevalier de Seingalt (played by Italian actor Marcello Mastroianni), Nicolas Edmé Restif de la Bretonne, Countess Sophie de la Borde, and Thomas Paine (played by American actor Harvey Keitel) as they ride in a carriage a few hours behind the carriage carrying the King and Queen of France, Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, on their attempt to escape from revolutionary France in 1791. Jack Shepherd's stage play In Lambeth dramatized a visit by Thomas Paine to the Lambeth home of William and Catherine Blake in 1789. In 2001 the Scottish musician Dick Gaughan included the song "Tom Paine's Bones" on his album Outlaws and Dreamers. In 2005 the writer Trevor Griffiths published These are the Times: A Life of Thomas Paine, originally written as a screenplay for Richard Attenborough Productions. Although the film was not made, the play was broadcast, as a two-part drama, on BBC Radio 4 in 2008 with a repeat in 2012. In 2009 Griffiths adapted the screenplay for a production entitled A New World at Shakespeare's Globe theatre on London's South Bank.[100] In 2009 Paine's life was dramatized in the play Thomas Paine Citizen of the World,[101] produced for the "Tom Paine 200 Celebrations" festival[102] in Thetford, the town of his birth. Paine's role in the foundation of the United States is depicted in a pseudo-biographical fashion in the educational animated series Liberty's Kids produced by DIC Entertainment. Paine is a character in the Bob Dylan song "As I Went Out One Morning", featured on Dylan's 1968 album, John Wesley Harding. Paine is also mentioned in the song "Renegades of Funk" by Afrika Bambaataa in which he is referred to as "Tom Paine" among other notable "renegades" Chief Sitting Bull, Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X. The song was later covered by rap metal band Rage Against the Machine, with Paine's name still included. Paine is referred to on several occasions in Philip Roth's 1998 novel "I Married a Communist". Paine is a character in the story "Thermidor" in The Sandman: Fables & Reflections, where he is shown having a colloquy with Louis Antoine de Saint-Just. Asset-based egalitarianism British philosophy Contributions to liberal theory Liberty List of American philosophers List of British philosophers List of civil rights leaders Society of the Friends of Truth Aldridge, A. Owen, 1959. Man of Reason: The Life of Thomas Paine. Lippincott. Regarded by British authorities as the standard biography. Aldridge, A. Owen, 1984. Thomas Paine's American Ideology. University of Delaware Press. Ayer, A. J., 1988. Thomas Paine. University of Chicago Press. Bailyn, Bernard, 1990. "Common Sense", in Bailyn, Faces of Revolution: Personalities and Themes in the Struggle for American Independence. Alfred A. Knopf. Bernstein, R. B. "Review Essay: Rediscovering Thomas Paine". New York Law School Law Review, 1994 – valuable blend of historiographical essay and biographical/analytical treatment. Butler, Marilyn, 1984. Burke Paine and Godwin and the Revolution Controversy. Claeys, Gregory, 1989. Thomas Paine, Social and Political Thought. Unwin Hyman. Excellent analysis of Paine's thought. Conway, Moncure Daniel, 1892. The Life of Thomas Paine, 2 vols. G.P. Putnam's Sons, Vol. 1 (E'book), Vol. 2 (E'book). Long hailed as the definitive biography, and still valuable. Fast, Howard, 1946. Citizen Tom Paine (historical novel, though sometimes mistaken as biography). Ferguson, Robert A. "The Commonalities of Common Sense", William and Mary Quarterly, July 2000, Vol. 57#3, pp. 465–504. in JSTOR. Foner, Eric, 1976. Tom Paine and Revolutionary America. Oxford University Press. The standard monograph treating Paine's thought and work with regard to America. Foner, Eric, 2000, "Paine, Thomas" in American National Biography Online Hawke, David Freeman, 1974. Paine. Regarded by many American authorities as the standard biography. Hitchens, Christopher, 2006. Thomas Paine's "Rights of Man": A Biography. Kates, Gary, 1989, "From Liberalism to Radicalism: Tom Paine's Rights of Man", Journal of the History of Ideas: 569–587. Kaye, Harvey J., 2005. Thomas Paine and the Promise of America. Hill and Wang. Keane, John, 1995. Tom Paine: A Political Life. London. One of the most valuable recent studies. Lamb, Robert. "Liberty, Equality, and the Boundaries of Ownership: Thomas Paine's Theory of Property Rights". Review of Politics, Summer 2010, Vol. 72, Issue 3, pp. 483–511. Larkin, Edward, 2005. Thomas Paine and the Literature of Revolution.[Cambridge University Press. Lessay, Jean. L'américain de la Convention, Thomas Paine: Professeur de révolutions. Paris: Éditions Perrin, 1987, 241 pp. Levin, Yuval. The Great Debate: Edmund Burke, Thomas Paine, and the Birth of Right and Left (Basic Books, 2013) 275 pp.; their debate over the French Revolution. Lewis, Joseph L., 1947,. Thomas Paine: The Author of the Declaration of Independence. New York: Freethought Association Press Assn. Nelson, Craig, 2006. Thomas Paine: Enlightenment, Revolution, and the Birth of Modern Nations. Viking. ISBN 0-670-03788-5. Philp, Mark, 2004. "Paine, Thomas (1737–1809)," Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, May 2008; accessed 16 December 2013; doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/21133 Powell, David, 1985. Tom Paine, The Greatest Exile. Hutchinson. Solinger, Jason D. "Thomas Paine's Continental Mind". Early American Literature, November 2010, Vol. 45, Issue 3, pp. 593–617. Vincent, Bernard, 2005. The Transatlantic Republican: Thomas Paine and the age of revolutions. Washburne, E. B. "Thomas Paine and the French Revolution". Scribner's Monthly, Vol. XX, May/October 1880.E'book Foot, Michael and Kramnick, Isaac, eds (1987). The Thomas Paine Reader. Penguin Classics. ISBN 0-14-044496-3 Paine, Thomas (Foner, Eric, editor), 1993. Writings. Library of America. Authoritative and scholarly edition containing Common Sense, the essays comprising the American Crisis series, Rights of Man, The Age of Reason, Agrarian Justice, and selected briefer writings, with authoritative texts and careful annotation. Paine, Thomas (Foner, Philip S., ed.), 1944. The Complete Writings of Thomas Paine, 2 vols. Citadel Press. We badly need a complete edition of Paine's writings on the model of Eric Foner's edition for the Library of America, but until that goal is achieved, Philip Foner's two-volume edition is a serviceable substitute. Volume I contains the major works, and volume II contains shorter writings, both published essays and a selection of letters, but confusingly organized; in addition, Foner's attributions of writings to Paine have come in for some criticism in that Foner may have included writings that Paine edited but did not write and omitted some writings that later scholars have attributed to Paine. "Common Sense: The Rhetoric of Popular Democracy" lesson plan for grades 9-12 from National Endowment for the Humanities The UK Thomas Paine Society The Thomas Paine Society Who was Thomas Paine? Essays on the Religious and Political Philosophy of Thomas Paine Thomas Paine's Memorial Thomas Paine Quotations Take a video tour of Thomas Paine's birthplace Office location while in Alford[ Thomas Paine-Passionate Pamphleteer for Liberty by Jim Powell at the Wayback Machine (archived August 5, 2012) Thomas Paine on Paper Money, 1786 Thomas Paine, Liberty's Hated Torchbearer Lesson plan – Common Sense: The Rhetoric of Popular Democracy Books of Our Time: Thomas Paine and the Promise of America[video) Correspondence between Paine and Samuel Adams regarding the charge of infidelity One Life: Thomas Paine, the Radical Founding Father, exhibition from the National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution Thomas Paine at C-SPAN's American Writers: A Journey Through History Archival material relating to Thomas Paine listed at the UK National Archives Portraits of Thomas Paine at the National Portrait Gallery, London Works Works by Thomas Paine at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Thomas Paine at Internet Archive Works by Thomas Paine at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks) Deistic and Religious Works of Thomas Paine The theological works of Thomas Paine The theological works of Thomas Paine to which are appended the profession of faith of a savoyard vicar by J.J. Rousseau Common Sense by Thomas Paine; HTML format, indexed by section Rights of Man Listen to Common Sense at Americana Phonic[m4a audio format




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